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Richard L. Garwin 
IBM Research Division 
Thomas J. Watson Research Center 
P.0. Box 218 

Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 
(914) 945-2555 

May 8, 1989 
(Via FAX to 9-213-206-6628) 

Dr. Mostafa A. El-Sayed 

The Journal of Physical Chemistry 
Department of Chemistry and 
Biochemi stry 
3048 Young Hall 
607 Circle Drive South 

University of California, Los Angeles 
Los Angeles, CA 90024-1569 

Dear Dr. El-Sayed: 

My anonymous review follows. 
Sincerely yours, V 



Richard L. Garwin 

RLG : j tml : 128%MAES : 050889MAES 


I have read carefully the manuscript "Two Innocent Chemists 
Look at Cold Fusion," (revised, received 05/01/89 in your 
office) and sent to me 05/01/89 in California. I am now 
back in my office. My review is not quite complete. I have 
promised to send another page 05/09/89 or 05/10/89, with 
additional comments on the symmetry question of page 8. 
Nevertheless, I believe my views will not change. 

I recommend that the manuscript by Walling and 
Simon (W-S) be published only after major changes. 
It is clearly highly original and of current 
interest; however, the proposal cannot explain the 
heat rate claimed by Fleischmann, Pons, and 
Hawkins (FPH), nor the billion-fold too small 
accompanying radiation. The paper's novelty is in 
the recognition of the enhancement in internal 
conversion (IC) that would take place IF the 
fusion rate were enhanced by 10**55 by the 
presence of real heavy electrons. But the "heavy 
electrons" discussed in solid state physics can't 
do either the screening job or the enhancement of 
IC. Furthermore, even if all the energy could be 
converted to electrons of 23+ MeV kinetic energy, 
much of that would then appear as highly 
penetrating multi-MeV X rays from the 
bremstrahlung radiated by the relativistic 
electrons in the Pd surround. 

Unfortunately, aspects of the presentation would be highly 
misleading if published without major changes. I will 
return a marked-up copy of the manuscript. The markings are 
neither very legible nor complete, so I present the changes 
here, keyed to page and decimal fraction of a page. 


Minor point 


Page 2.2 Better say, ... deuterium formed by electrolysis 
of LIOD in a solution of D20 leads to the evolution of heat 
on a scale not easily reconciled with any known chemical 
reaction, together with small amounts of neutrons and 
tritium. " 

Page 2.3 Better say,"... of the results in a number of 
laboratories. Tritium and neutrons are emitted in the 
well-known fusion ..." 

Page 2.7 "... apparent enhanced rate of ... fusion (by a 
factor 10**53 in these experiments) involves ..." 

Page 3.3 "in the process, an electron may be ejected with 
the full 23+ MeV kinetic energy, most of which will 
eventually produce heat ..." 


Page 3.8 "... and substantially larger than that of a 
number of blank determinations" should be replaced by some 
actual numbers. 

Page 3.9 "The fact that the heat production rate ... at 
least this extent." would better be replaced by "At 24 MeV 
per 4He produced, this would be 1.3 x 10**11 4He per second 
and per cc, or about 0.016 ppm of 4He . Although stated as 
'1-10 ppm, ' the mass spectroscopic determination of the 
4He/D2 ratio could well be sufficiently uncertain to be 
consistent with this value." 

Page 4.5 "To describe the fusion ..., we interpret the 
model outlined in refs. (3) or (6)." The model was created 
by others. 

I believe that it confuses the reader to present two 
"approaches." I think that that presentation should be 
carried through with one approach consistently, and then a 
final paragraph should outline the other' and give the 
comparative results. I suppose it is a matter of taste 
whether the two are carried along in parallel or one is 
preferred and the other brought in at the end. 

Page 4.7 In this formulation "R = C x sigma x v x P" there 
is some confusion. The cross-section usually takes into 
account the probability of fusion per collision. Thus "... 
conventional to express sigma as ..." really should have the 
factor P in that expression. 

Page 5.3 Instead of "The fusion probability function ..." 
one should write "In the case of a Coulomb barrier in which 
the repulsive potential energy between deuterons falls 
inversely with their separation, the fusion probability 
function ..." 

At this point, we are referred to reference 3. The second 
sentence there should read "He presents the tunneling 
formula used here." Apparently, he did it 25 years earlier. 

Page 5.4 Why is this exponent "63.4" and not "63.5" as in 
reference 6? 

Page 5.7 Why is "S = 1 x ..." not "S = 1.1 x ..." as in 
reference 6? 

Page 5.7 Here we have the two approaches giving different 
functional forms that are fit to the same value. 

Page 5.8 "To achieve a rate of 4He* formation equal to 
2.6 x 10**12 ..., as corresponds to 10 W of fusion heat per 
cc and per second, given the concentration ..." 

"... as inferred earlier ..." is better replaced by " . . . as 
corresponds to 10 W of fusion heat per cc and per second 


Page 7.2 The "... (because of would better be 
replaced by "... (because of the extreme rarity of 3H) . " 

Page 7.3 Here the authors refer to the "possibly large ... 
rate ratio ... of 160" but they don't refer to the 
alternative that they have presented of 10**- 11 . 6/10**-10 . 3 , 
in which the p-d rate would be smaller than the d-d rate by 
a factor 20. 

Heavy electrons won' t do the j ob. 

The discussion of m* ignores the fact that while a real 
lepton of mass m* would indeed produce the enhanced fusion 
rates and enhanced internal conversion (IC) rates 
calculated, the high "effective mass" of\f electrons in a 
periodic structure cannot do this. For instance, if 
hydrogen atoms maintained on a simple lattice are squeezed 
together to normal density of electrons as found in metals 
(5 x 10**22 per cc), they form a broad conduction band in 
which m* is about 1. If one then expands the lattice, so 
that the spacing between protons is about a factor 2 
smaller, the m* gets to be extremely large, as evidence of 
the difficulty of tunneling from one potential well to the 
next. In between is a value where m* equal 5 or m* equal 10 
or m* equal 207. However, these are still ordinary 
electrons, incapable of shielding local potentials in the 
manner in which the negative muon shields in the well-known 
muon-catalyzed fusion. 

On page 13.6 (in footnote 8), the authors state "... the 
screening caused by the lattice electrons acts much as the 
muon does." But this is an assumption and not a 
demonstration . 

As for the discussion of angular momentum (page 8), it might 
better be said (page 8.2) "For collisions having even 
1.0 keV of kinetic energy, 1-values between 100 and 1000 
exist, although only low ..." 

For a pair of deuterons screened by a real negative particle 
of mass m*, the deuteron effective energy goes like m* and 
its velocity, therefore, as (m*)l/2. Angular momentum is 
deuteron mass times deuteron velocity times the radius, so 
the maximum angular momentum of a particle combining with 
the barrier (of width 1/m*) is hence proportional to 
(1/m*) **0.5 . Thus the extrapolation between m*=207 (muon 
catalyzed fusion) and m*=10 (as required to explain heat 
evolution) is just a factor 20 in m* or a factor 4.5 in 
1-max . 


The W-S "effective energy" is 100-fold smaller than 
Koonin 1 s . 

But there is a problem of consistency in this treatment of 
"effective energy" of the deuteron. The Coulomb barrier is 
the only shape for which a truncation at radius r caused by 
screening by mobile charges or heavy leptons produces a 
barrier penetration factor P whose log is proportional to 
r**0.5. Because the electrostatic energy is inversely as r, 
-log P goes as effective energy to the -0.5 power, or as 
effective velocity to the -1 power. Koonin (Note 6 in W-S) 
mentions "The effective energy with which the nuclei assault 
the coulomb barrier..." He clearly implies an effective 
energy that is comparable with the unshielded coulomb energy 
at the screening distance-- so 10 eV at 0.7 A (m*=l), 100 eV 
at 0.07 A (m*=10). But Walling and Simons specifically 
relate THEIR "effective energy" to a reference speed of 
7 km/s, or a corresponding vibration frequency, or about 

0.25 eV for m*=l. For larger m* , the deuterons are confined 
more closely, and their effective energy increases in 
proportion to m* , just as in the traditional calculation of 
fusion rate of two d bound by a real particle of mass m*, 
but the Walling-Simons effective energy is lower by a factor 
40-100 or so. This discrepancy is concealed by "fitting" 
the W-S model as in Eqs . (5a) and (5b), but this is possible 
only because W-S assume a "speed ratio" proportional to 
M*/m, without ever calculating the increase in "thermal 
velocity" that would be caused by the introduction or real 
electrons of mass m* . In fact, the d-d vibration frequency 
scales like m*-squared, and actual deuteron velocity in the 
vibrational well like m* itself, not like root-m*, but W-S 
never calculate the behavior of their effective energy with 
m* . 

Nevertheless, it they would consider muon-catalyzed fusion, 
they would anticipate with m*=207 a W-S effective energy of 
207x0.25 eV, or some 50 eV, a far better comparison than the 
"even 1.0 keV" they take on page 8.2 to make plausible a 
different behavior in the "low-energy" region. 

Internal Conversion. 

This is a truly original observation of the authors in this 
context, but they nevertheless encounter four problems: 

1. The "heavy electron" of solid-state physics can neither 
shield as calculated nor enhance the IC rate. 

2. Even if it could, the 2 . 7-6 . 7xl0**9 deexcitation rate 
calculated for excited 4He is far too slow to compete with 
particle deexcitation rates of 10**-19 sec for a width even 
as narrow as 6 keV. 


. . 0 -i -rae fraction of 

3 The 23 + MeV ele |“Sh g ^Y«is father th ah l° s1 ^ ^ 
their energy ae Plating « cf!j and these X rays 

sss-UKS--— • ean 

4. The .ucn-bound ,^^^(207/10^^3^”^ 
InTact! "it w°uW be 

£5^.^ Steady dominates particle 

in the muon case 1 

emission for m*-10. Pressed that RR 

Page 9.9 W-S f ate. finally , £ faster tha^the^rates of 

£^oTt| el tS er ob 3 sfr; n at°ion 3 s H ;S mi lt 

consistent « th th e authors are ‘^““^^onsiderably 
reviewer tha factor 10 . reauirement. 

particle the strength ot the requir 

faster does not dp not know the 

in , The authors emphasise that t ^ 3He+n or 3H+ p ^ 
Page 10.1 Th f fragmentation of ® deuteron beam 

"absolute rates of y many acceler; ato: r metal 

as P iS^tecl.S pbyait- have f^ e ^y from the 
2SSS oSd'wi^gas target cells. ^ „ 

s^sed! STM.* " ~“ st this 

possible m on 

note to read: s> pons a 

11 6 . On April 3 , wa received £r isotopic Hydrogen 

8 Y tSis 

Molecules oy April 7, 

"Submitted to N|5H£_ „ 

paper, fusion rates. . • 

does not know what 

"natural condition fusion 

This reviewer 

urge the authors to consult with ^^“ation" and 
y ^hson (whom ir they n thank pt ^ response to these 

guidance) in revising 
comments . 


Thomas Lowinger, Ph.D. Radiotherapy St. Luke's - Roosevelt Hospital 
College of Physicians and Surgeons Columbia University 
Amsterdam Avenue at 114th Street, New York, NY 10025 

Lithium containing salts (e.g., lithium chrbonate and citrate) are the major pharmacologic 
treatments for bipolar disorder. The therapeutic mechanism of action for lithium remains 
uncertain. We propose to explain the nature of action of lithium by nuclear reactions in- 
volving lithium in accordance with the new cold fusion processes recently discovered. 
Following ingestion, lithium is completely absorbed and is preferentially distributed in 
the neuronal membranes. In the membranes ^Li is bombarded with protons according to the 
following reaction; \ 

7 Li + l E -A ( 8 Be) * -? 4 He + %e \ 

This reaction occurs without a radiated gamma ray. The\bombarding protons are derived 
from two sources; The cell water contains naturally traces amounts of deuterium. Due to 
the 150 mV cell membrane potential D+ is galvanostaticallyxcompressed into the membrane. 

In the membrane the by now well accepted fusion of ; \ 

2 D + 2 D ^ 3 T (1.01 MEV) + *H (3.02 MEV) \ 

takes place. Other protons may also derive from cosmic rays. The action of helium on 
neuronal membrane is that of an anesthetic this is well known and can be explained by 
its ability to lower surface tension and thus interfere with neuronal transmission. 

Helium has in fact been used for anesthesia. We posit that it is the anesthetic effects 
of helium that cause the reported decrease of manic episodes for those on lithium main- 
tainance. Depression of some cardiac arrythmias by lithium may also be explained by its 
conversion to helium. Helium has a known antiarrythmic effect which is yet unexplained. 

Since lithium is also commonly used to treat impulse disorders we suggest the adminis- 
tration of this substance, found in every chemistry laboratory, to the proponents of 
cold fusion 


In view of the rapid pace in developments related to cold fusion, we intend 
° ™ n ’. lr > upcoming issues in Fusion Technology (FT), a series of brief 
Technical Notes on that subject. The Technical Note section in FT is a stan- 
ard feature intended for fast publication of important papers on new direc- 
tions .innovative ideas, and new results. Thus, this section seems to be ideally 
suited for rapid communication of work in progress in cold fusion. 

Technical Notes do not have a page limit, but they typically run two to 
P^es (roughly *«* double-spaced typewritten pages per journal 
p . age '‘ A . very bnef abstract is required; otherwise, the format follows that for 
standard manuscripts (see “Instructions to Authors” on the back leaf of the 
journal). Computer disks with ASCII-fonnat word processing can be accepted 
per instructions in the July issue of the journal. 

Tecnmcai Notes will receive a review, but this process is set up for a rapid 
turnaround. Reviewers are instructed to consider Technical Notes (versus nor- 
maJ manuscripts) as speculative, sometimes incomplete work that should be 
judged on the basis of innovation, originality, and importance to fusion power 
development. Appropriate citations to prior work are also essential. 

as follows" 65 f ° r rCCeipt ° f Tectmic al Notes for upcoming issues of FT are 


September issue: 
November issue: 
December issue: 
January issue: 

May 5 ( 9 
June 30 
August 4 
September 5 



Several Technical Notes have already been received for the September issue 
so we hope that this represents a start for articles on cold fusion 
si t Ge orge H. Miley, Editor, Fusion Technology, Fusion 

IT U u mv f Slty of IUin0IS ’ 103 S. Goodwin Avenue Urbana, 
h S “ dmgb T y x Fax ’ use < 21? ) 333-2906. Any questions should be 
addressed to George H. Miley or Chris Stalker (217) 333-3772. 



Interest has been expressed in purchasing reprints of the Technical Note section 
(9 manuscripts) in the September issue of FUSION TECHNOLOGY. These 
notes were received in response to the call for papers on cold fusion that 
included speculative papers which would pass review for technical soundness 
and imagination. 

The ANS does not normally run extra copies of journal issues for distribution 
beyond the standard subscription list. However, in this case, reprints of the 
technical note section are planned. To reserve a copy, orders must be received 
by July 30. A price of $12.00 for the ~ 37 page reprint has been established. 

To indicate your interest in this, please complete the attached form and mail 
directly to ANS. 

George Miley, Editor 

TO: American Nuclear Society 

P.O. Box 97781 
Chicago, IL 60678-7781 



Telephone: ( ) 

I wish to order reprints of the section of Technical Notes on Cold Fusion 

scheduled for the September ’89 issue of FUSION TECHNOLOGY. A check 
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PRBIT SCRIPT Q1 dated 89/05/07 15:15:09 

Page 1 

Received: from by Hamlet. Caltech. Edu with INTERNET ; 

Fri, 5 May 89 17:27:36 PDT 
Received: by (1. 1/1.2) 

id AA17789 ; Fri, 5 May 89 18:21:38 PDT 
Date: Fri, 5 May 89 18:21:38 PDT 

From: preskill%theory3 . caltech. edu@Hamlet . Bitnet (John Preskill) 

Message- Id: <8905060121 . AA17 7 89@theory3 .caltech. edu> 

To: rlg2@yktvmt . BITNET 

Subject: Caltech colloquium 

You may recall that we exchanged bitnet messages two weeks ago 
concerning a possible physics colloquium at Caltech. At the time you 
said that you were receptive to the idea, but could not schedule 
anything for this spring. 

I would now like to invite you to visit here and give a colloquium next 
fall. In recent years, we have not had talks on public policy issues at 
our physics colloquium, and I am trying to change that. I think that it 
is appropriate and desirable to hear about policy issues that are of 
particular interest to a physics audience at least a few times a year. 

I am rather ignorant about these things, but I would particularly like 
to understand better various questions that concern the verifiability of 
limitations on weapons (e.g., cruise missiles) and testing. But I defer 
to you as the best judge of what would be an appropriate topic. 

Our physics colloquia are on Thursday afternoons at 4:15, with the first 
one next fall scheduled for September 28, and the last before Christmas 
on December 7. So far, the only date that has been filled is October 
5. I hope that you will be willing to speak at one of the early ones, 
i.e. Sept. 28 or Oct. 12. We pay travel expenses, local expenses, and a 
nominal honorarium. 

Please let me know if you are interested by replying to 
preskill@caltech. bitnet . Thanks 

John Preskill 

Bigeleisen Isotope Symposium 

May 6, 1989 

The State University of New York at Stony Brook 

Regist rat ion Form 

A block of twin and double rooms has been reserved 
for this occasion at the Islandia Hilton, which is 
about 25 minute driving distance away from the Stony 
Brook campus. The Hotel offers free limousine 
service to L.I. MacArthur ("Islip") Airport. On May 
6, bus service will be provided between the Hotel and 
the campus. 

The airport serves the following airlines^ American, 
Delta, Eastern, Piedmont , Edited, and US Air. 

Name : 
Address : 

hy\ J flQ ' TO- ‘-‘LrH bi 1 



I would like a twin 

or double 

room per night for the night(s) of 

Friday, May 5 
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accommodation at $95 per . 


Any other day(s) 

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Please return this form to: 

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Direct any questions to T. Ishida at the above return address, or 





(516) 632-7894 
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TISHIDA@ccmail . sunysb . edu 

Stony Brook 

PR-BIT SCRIPT Q1 dated 89/05/05 17:28:47 Page 1 

Date: 5 May 1989, 17:15:59 EDT 

From: James F. Ziegler 8-862-2165 ZIEGLER at YKTVMX 

IBM - Research (28-024) ATT: 914-945-2165 
Yorktown, New York, 10598 


Richard Garwin 





Jerry Cuomo 





Theodore Zabel 





Subject: Excess heat liberation in Pd/D20 electrolysis cells 
Re: Note from EOSULL 

The below is passed on from Eugene O'Sullivan. 

Jim Ziegler 

Referenced Note 

Date: 5 May 1989, 16:58:28 EDT 

From: Eugene J.M. O'Sullivan 862-3997 EOSULL at YKTVMX 

To: avieh, brusic, dukovic, kwong, roman xsambuc, ziegler 

Subject: Excess heat liberation in Pd/D20 electrolysis cells 

The following is a summary of some information on the above subject 
which I have recently received. I obtained some of this 
from a person directly involved in this work in Texas A&M. 

We know something of the A&M work already from the Press. 

They have submitted a paper, with John Appleby as the first author, 
to Nature on their results with Pd/D20, Pd/H20 and Pt/D20 
electrolysis cells. They have been consistently measuring excess heat 
from their Pd/D20 cells - they "are not claiming nuclear fusion", 
however. They use a microcalorimeter setup. 

(Excess heat is determined by subtracting the 

thermoneutral potential for the cell, ca. 1.53 V for D20, 

from the measured cell potential and multiplying by the cell current. 

The extra potential is responsible 

for heat generation; heat above the calc, amount would be classified 
as excess, or unaccounted for, heat). 

Some of the people involved in this, 

e.g. John Appleby, have lots of experience with fuel cells and 
electrolyzers, where heat considerations are important. 

They are getting excess heating values up to ca. 19 W/ (cm** 3 of Pd), 
which is in the general range of P&F's results. They have observed no 
excess heat from their Pt/D20, Pd/H20 cells. 

Up to now they have not introduced any additives into their 
electrolyte to modify the kinetics of the D2 evol., etc., but they 
plan on doing this. (I now become somewhat speculative from here on) 

It seems that P&F are using these (now). 

When Prof. Bockris visited Pon's lab a little while ago 
he left with the strong impression (to shorten the story) 
that they were using additives to enhance permeation of D into the 
Pd. These could be e.g. thiourea, cyanide, or direct hydrogen formers, 
e.g. As (yes, arsenic based). Apparently one must get the overpotential 
(for D2 evolution) to very high values, i.e. slow down the rate of the 
adatom D-D recombination reaction. If this is true, it is no 
surprise from an electrochemical point of view, and this information 
is being concealed for patent reasons - a patent attorney has been known 
to sit-in on some mtgs . at Utah. 

PRBIT SCRIPT Q1 dated 89/05/05 17:28:47 

Page 2 

Further, the nature of the Pd is important, apparently. Press reports 
alluded to the "success" of cast vs. extruded Pd, of course. However, it 
seems that the purity of the Pd may be critical. Platinum is thought 
to be a bad bulk impurity for excess heat generation. Apparently, 

Johnson Matthey is trying to develop properly purified Pd for them. 

Again, let me say that the 

Texas A&M people, have not generally concerned themselves with purity 
of Pd or solution make-up till now. They are planning an experiment 
with either K or Na in place of Li in the near future. 

You may form you own opinion on what I've relayed here. 

I will find out more at the ECS mtg on Mon. evening, where things will 
be clarified one way or another. 


PRBIT SCRIPT Q1 dated 89/05/05 16:07:58 

Page 1 

Date: Fri, 5 May 89 13:04:19 PDT 

From: koonin@sbitp . bitnet 

Message-Id: <890505130419 . 127@sbitp.ucsb. edu> 

Subject: RE: Frascati. 

To: rlg2@yktvmv.bitnet 

X-ST-Vmsmail-To : ST%"r lg2@yktvmv . bitnet" 

Dick: I've heard nothing new either way on the Italian expts . However, 

Jones reported a new round of expts at LANL with 3He proportional counters, 
a simpler electrolyte (still says PdC12 is important) with Ti cathode, and 
expert LANL collaborators. Privately, he told me he's seen the counters 
light up to several hundred times background on occasion, but clearly 
doesn't want to talk about this in public until he's done a more thorough 
job. I know people at lots of places who are trying to duplicate Frascati, 
but so far no firm results . 

Jones (and Jim Cohen in Nature) raised the possibility of strong electric 
fields at cracks accelerating deuterons . Am learning all about (jtribochemistry 
' ' now, and should have something to say next week. 

On the political front, I will be at the ECS meeting on Monday where 
Pons, Fleischmann, Jones, Lewis, Huggins, and people from Texas A&M and 
Case are supposed to talk. Lewis and I will be wearing body armor, but 
it should be fun. Unless they concede completely, the final round 
will likely happen in Santa Fe. 

Steve K. 

P. S. Have you seen the MIT preprint by Petrasso et al. on the analysis 
of the gamma spectrum? Thye took the P/F spectrum as shown on TV and 
conclude that the Hpeak' ' shown is actually a 2.5 MeV artifact somehow 
shifted down to 2.2 MeV. The whole thing really sounds like fraud now, 
although I can't say that in public. 

PRBIT SCRIPT Q1 dated 89/05/05 16:04:10 

Page 1 

scanfile .SEJ 1987 log script d (nor any 

Jones SE 04/10/89 16 041089. SEJ cp Revised "Observation of Cold Nuclear 

Fusion in Condensed Matter" with Palmer, et al. 

Jones SE 04/03/89 1 040389. SEJ ol I have read your preprint of 03/23/89 and 

heard your talk at Columbia Univer 

Jones SE 03/23/89 18 032389. SEJ cp "Observation of Cold Nuclear Fusion in 

Condensed Matter" with E.P. Palmer, et al. 

Jones SE 03/00/86 18 030086. SEJ cp "Piezonuclear Fusion at Brigham Young 

Univers ity . " 

R; T=0. 16/0.20 16:03:22 
console look 

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Ofos'x*. viCr 


The Theory of Elementary Processes in a Condensed Medium 

I. V, Aleksandrov and V.I.Goldanskii 

Soviet Scientific Reviews, Section B (Chemistry) 

Ed. M.Volpin, Vol. 11 (1988) 1-67 

(Harwood ACademic Publishers) 

Spontaneous Mirror Symmetry Breaking 
in Nature and the Origin of Life 
V.I.Goldanskii and V.V. Kuz'min 

Z.Phys.ChemLe (Leipzig) Vol. 269 (1988) 216-274 


Autowave Modes of Conversion in Low- 
Temperature Chemical Reactions in Solids 
V.V.Barelko, I. M. Barkalov, V.I.Goldanskii, 

D.P.Kiryukhin and A.M.Zanin 

Adv. Chem. Phys. (Eds. I.Prigogine, S.Rice) 

Vol. 74 (1988), 339-384 
(John Wiley and Sons) 

Quantum Cryochemical Reactivity in Solids 
V.I.Goldanskii, V, A, Benderskii and L. I. Trakhtenberg 
Adv, Chem. Phys. (Eds. I.Prigogine, S.Rice) 

Vol. 75 (1989) 

(John Wiley and Sons) 

Protein and Protein-Bound Y/ater Dynamics 

Studied by Rayleigh Scattering of Mossbauer Radiation (RSKR) 
V.I.Goldanskii and Yu.F.Krupyanskii 
Quart. Rev. Biophys. Vol. 22 (1989)» No. 1 





AUTHORS: V.I. Gol'danskii, Institute of Chemical Physics of the Academy of Sciences 

of the USSR, Moscow, L.I. Trakhtenberg, Karpov Institute of Physical 
Chemistry, Moscow and V.N. Fleurov, Tel Aviv University, Israel 
Translated from the Russian by V.N. Heurov 

CATEGORY: Chemistry and Physics 


This book provides a much-needed survey of the contemporary concepts and theoretical 
and experimental results of tunneling processes. It considers from a unified viewpoint not 
only chemical reactions, but also other physical, physicochemical and biological 
phenomena in which the tunneling effect is of great importance. The book opens by 
setting out the general ideas of tunneling, and proceeds to discuss the low temperature 
chemical reactions that manifest tunneling mechanisms, the tunneling effects in 
amorphous materials, quantum diffusion and surface phenomena in quantum crystals, 
and hopping diffusion and tunnel scavenging of electrons. It ends with a consideration of 
the tunneling effects in biological systems. Tunneling Phenomena in Chemical Physics 
provides a useful reference for specialists in various fields of chemistry, physics and 


Basic ideas in tunneling • Tunneling in chemical kinetics. History • Rate constant of 
solid-phase chemical reactions. Theory • Influence of defects on the rate of solid-phase 
tunneling reactions • Rate constant of solid-phase chemical reactions • Comparison of 
theory and experiment • Tunneling phenomena in amorphous solids • Tunneling of 
heavy particles in crystals • Dispersive transport • Tunneling electron scavenging • 
Tunneling effects in biology • References • Index. 

PUBLICATION DATE: February 1989 BINDING: Hardcover 

PRICE: List US $198.00 NO. OF PAGES: 344 pp. 

*SAS US $98.00 

ISBN: 2-88124-655-9 



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NY 10276, USA 


Vitalii I.Goldanskii and Fyodor I.Dalidchik 
(I'M!. Semenov Institute of Chemical Physics of the USSR Academy 
of Sciences, Ulitsa Plosygina, 4 ; 117334, Moscow, USSR) 

Three years ago JETP Letters have rejected the communica- 
tion of B. V.Deryaguin et al. on the emission of UeV neutrons 
during the fragile destruction of heavy ice or monocrystals of 

Subsequent publications of these data in other journals 1,1 
remained practically unnoticed. 

On the contrary, recent widely advertised claims about the 
so-called "cold fusion" presented at the press-conference on 
23 March 1989 by M.Pleischmann and S.Pons and later on inde- 
pendently by 3. Jones' group ^ have attracted worldwide attention 
and induced the broad spectrum of response of media - from the 
highly enthusiastic confirmations to equally sceptical rejection 
of initial claims. 

Neither of such approaches is the task of this letter. 

Our purpose is to present the simplest considerations of certain 
mechanisms able to enhance - to some extent - the nuclear inter- 
actions of hydrogen isotopes in the solid phase, particularly in 
the solid matrices of transition metals. 

The problem of state and behaviour of hydrogen in transi- 
tion metals ( Pd, Ti, Zr etc. ) is studied for already more than 
century, and vast information is accumulated (see e.g. which 

speaks in favour of simple model of "lattice gas" as a first 


as a first 

Thus the rate of nuclear syntheses can be described as : 

£ = n* <(& ce) v(£)> ( i ), 

where Yl io 22 cm“^ is the density of deuterium atoms in the 

matrix, (E) = (2) P(E), (5* (2) - reaction cross-section 

7 o jo 

due to the short-range nuclear forces (i.e. without the Coulomb 
interaction), P(E) = exp C-2 S(E)3 - tunneling penetrability of 
the potential barrier U(r) between the initial (d + d), and 
final (p + t or n + %e) configurations of reactants, S (S) = 
=• \J 2 yjL (V - , V\E) - relative velocity of reactants, JX - 

their reduced mass, symbol means the averaging of reacting 

species over their relative kinetic energy E (we take here 
1v = e = m= 1)o 



For purely Coulomb barrier ( U = -£-) 

<^P(ED> =: exp £ - -|-(4rr yU. / D 1/3 

and for the temperature T^300 H, one obtains vanishingly 
small value of <^P(E))>~ 10 ~ 18 ^ , which exludes any possibility 
of reaction. 

Such estimate is however unapplicable for the case of d + d 
interaction in the gas of free electrons of metal since these 
electrons shield protons charges at the distances r / <~ oC » 
where dL ^ 2 - 3 (Kef. 5 ), and thus eliminate the contribution 

of far distances which usually plays decisive part in the total 

— oc re- 

value of action for Coulomb pot ential . Thus for U(r) = — — , 

3 (E » 0 ) . 2 ( 3 ), 

and for c<. = 3 a.u. , (2^1 0 “ 24 cm 2 , eV, one gets 

K 40 ^ cm”^sec ^ , which is however still 20 — 22 orders of 


magnitude below the reaction rate presented by Jones et al. 
and even much stronger deviates from the data of Ref. 3* 


Let us treat some supplementary factors which can addi- 
tionally enhance the cold nuclear syntheses. The increase of hot; 
cross-section ^ (E) and tunneling probability P(E) are 
"a priori 1 ' not excluded. 

Indeed, the use of formulae (1) presumes that the deuteron 
behaves itself in tunneling as the structureless particle. It 
could seem that at sufficiently small distances when the poten- 
tial U(r) is large enough, the well-known Oppenheimer-Phillip; 
mechanism can be included, which corresponds to the tunneling of 
single neutron, i.e. to the absence of any Coulomb barrier (expe- 
rimentally that would lead to the increasing probability of 
(dd)(pt) in compare to (dd)(n ^He) channel). Simple estimates 
show however that it is unlikely so since the deuteron binding 
energy (2,2 MeV) is considerably higher than the height of 
dd - Coulomb barrier (ca. 0,5 MeV). 

One could also expect that at sufficiently low energies 
the rate of nuclear fusion can be increased due to the existence 
of excited level of ^He near the threshold of its decay in two 
deuterons ( ~ 23,85 MeV). The existence of such level (E = 

24,1 MeV, T = 0, J” = l“) is indeed widely discussed (see e.g. 

Assuming the Breit-Wigner type (E) dependence, one can 
write : 

f( F } rlF ( 4 ) 

C£-$.) z +(q+z)* ? 

where r describes the probability of formation of resonance 


configuration, n - of its decay along the channels of nuclear 


syntheses, f(E) is the energy distribution function. 

The role of resonance factor depends considerably on the 
ratio of two characteristic times : life-time of resonance state 



t ru ( r+r r, and tunneling time 'C'% r-n: 3(2). 

l Z> otz 

When t ^>2T , the main contribution to the integral (4) is due 

to the vicinity of E = E , i.e. the process proceeds via the 

resonance mechanism. Y/hen t <$f * 0 / (this is the case of dd systc 

since here t -1 rv 1 MeV, ^ 10 keV - for the shielded Coulomb 


potential at 06 ^ 2 - 3 ), the role of resonance is insignificant. 
Meanwhile for the dt system, where it exists sufficiently 

^ <i 

narrow 3/2 + resonance : E =, 16.76 HeV^ t 140 keV (Ref. 9), 

the process of cold nuclear syntheses can proceed via the reso- 
nance mechanism. 

Thus above considerations show that the decisive part in 
the enhancement of cold nuclear syntheses can be played only by 
chemical factors - either by the change of the height and/or shape 
of potential barrier, or by the providing of effective thermal 
activation of reacting deuterium atoms. 

It is well known, that the value of shielding parameter 
is determined by the density of electrons in the medium and their 
effective masses. 

The increase of both these parameters (which can be of local 
nature) should be accompanied by the decrease of shielding radius 
and corresponding rise of penetrability of potential barrier U(r). 

In principle, it is also possible the change of the barrier 
shape, e.g. the appearance of local minimum due to the combined 
effects of spatial redistribution of electrons and deformation of 

matrix lattice. 

Then at certain conditions, e.g. at the energy E, which 

correspond to the energy of quasistationary complex, the effect 

1 0 

of resonance transparency may appear • If the relaxation of 
vibrational energy of such complex proceeds during its life-time, 

then the gain in the rate of nuclear syntheses can appear at 

the expense of the increasing frequency of collisioiis. 3uch inc: 


ase can reach a factor of n <g J 2T> ™ 10 in com P are to 
gas-like conditions (here Go 0,1 eV is the vibrational fre- 
quency of the complex). 

Considerable increase of nuclear syntheses rate in the 
crystalline matrix can be realized also by the mechanism of ener- 
getic activation, i.e. due to the transfer of the energy 
~10 keV to one of deuterium atoms. 

Such high-energy elementary excitations are absent in 
crystals under the equilibrium conditions, but when such condi- 
tions strongly deviate from the equilibrium, e.g. during the 
fragile destruction of the lattice, it is possible the signifi- 
cant localization of large portions of energy and its subsequenl 
transfer to the solved atoms of deuterium. Limiting (macroscopic 
case of such mechanism is represented by the electrostatic accel 
ration of deuterium ions in the microcondensers of cracks of 
fragile destruction which are apparently responsible for the 
appearance of neutrons during the shock destruction of B^O and 
LiL 1 » 2 . 

Here we enter the problems which belong to the field of 
piconuclear (i.e. pressure induced) rather than thermonuclear 
reactions, e.g. the comparison of chemical potentials of deuteri 
ions obtained under the conditions of overvoltage and extremely 
high compression of B^ (Ref. 3), the hypothetical cold fusion 
under the natural geophysical conditions (Ref. 4), and under the 
combined effects of high static pressures and shears, etc. 

The practical applicability of cold fusion as a source 
of energy is still an open question, nevertheless the claims 

on considerable enhancement of nuclear interactions in crysta- 
lline matrices seem to be worth attentive verifying and compre- 

Authors are indebted to Prof. V. A. Benderskii for valuable 




* Deryaguin, B.V., Kluyev, V.A., Lipson, A.G. and Toporov,Yu.P. 
Soviet Colloid Journal, 48 , 12 (1986) (in Russian) 

2. Kluyev, V.A. , Lipson, A.G., Toporov, Yu.P. and Deryaguin, B.\ 
Lett. Sov. J. Techn. Phys., 12, 1333 (1986) (in Russian) 

3. Fleischmann, M. and Pons, S. "Electrochemically Induced 
Nuclear Fusion of Deuterium” (Submitted to J.Electroanal. 
Chem. Interfac. Electroch. on March 11, 1989, in final form 
on March, 20, 1989) 

4 . Jones, S.E., Palmer, E.P., Czirr, J.B., Decker, D.L., 

Jensen, G.L., Thorne, J.M., Taylor, S.F. and Rafelski, J. 
(March, 23, 1989) 

5. Gel’d, P.V., Ryabov, R.A. and Mokhrachyova, L.P. Hydrogen 
and physical properties of metals and alloys. 

Moscow, Nauka, 1985 (in Russian) 

6. Topics in Applied Physics : Hydrogen in Metals (Volumes 1,2) 
(Ed. Alefeld, G. and Volki, I) Berlin-Heidelberg-New York. 
Springer, 1978 

7. Oppenheimer, R. and Phillips, M. Phys. Rev., 48 , 500 (1935) 

8. Bevelacqua, J. Phys. Rev. _27 (C), 2417 (1983) 

9. Ajzenberg - Selove F« Nucl. Phys. A 41 3 , 1 (1984) 

• Bohm David, Quantum Theory. N.Y. Prentice-Hall, J.N.C., 1952 


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{•; ::; t ( 

Richard L. Garwin 
IBM Research Division 
Thomas J. Watson Research Center 
P.0. Box 218 

Yorktown Heights, NY 10598 
(914) 945-2555 

May 3, 1989 

Professor Morris Kolodney 
414 Tracy Circle 
Nokomis, FL 3427J 

Dear Morris, 

Thanks very much foi\ your note, 
publication that you requested. 

Here is the Nature 


As I write this on 05/02/89 (12 days after the paper 
appeared), it seems to be holding up pretty well. 

As I indicate in my publication, ^don't think there is any 
heat to be explained. I think that Pons and Fleischmann 
simply did a very sloppy job of "calorimetry," without 
stirring or other elementary precautions. 

As for their gamma rays coming from neutron capture, there 
has been an excellent presentation to the American Physical 
Society session in Baltimore Monday night 05/01/89 by a 
group at MIT including Ron Parker, which showed that there 
was no way that that peak could be gamma rays. It lacks the 
photo edge, the escape peaks, and it is only half as broad 
as the reference peaks shown on the same scope in the TV 
press conference at the University of Utah. \ 

If you have further interest in this, I can send you other 

things. Here, 

for instance, is 

the Pons-Flei schmann 

For your possible interest, I enclose also the Jones 
preprint, which presumably has just been published in 
Nature . 

Very best regards to the two of you. 

Sincerely yours. 

Richard L. Garwin 
Forwarded in his absence 


Enel : 

04/20/89 "Consensus on Cold Fusion Still Elusive" by 
R.L. Garwin in Nature (Vol 338, pp. 616-617). 
(042 089. CNF) 

03/20/89 "Electrochemically Induced Nuclear Fusion of 
Deuterium" by M. Fleischmann and S. Pons. (032089.. MF) 
04/10/89 "Observation of Cold Nuclear Fusion in 

Condensed Matter" by S.E. Jones. (041089. SEJ) 

RLG: jah: 123%MK: 050389 . .MK 

MAY-02- 1989 10:43 FROM M . I . T . 



- 2 - 

y-Rav Spect ra in the Fl eischmann. 

Pons. Ha^ 

R. D. Petrasso, X. Chen, K. W. Wenzel, 
R. R. Parker, C. K. Li, and C. Fiore 

Plasma Fusion C« 

Massachusetts Institute o 
Cambridge, MA 02 


Fleischmann, Pons, and Hawkins (FPH) 1 * 2 recently announced that 
significant fusion heating was occurring in their cold fusion experiments. As 
compelling evidence of fusion processes, they reported the detection of 2.2 MeV 

We have carefully analyzed the published y-ray spectra of FPH. We have 
also performed detailed terrestrial y background measurements and neutron- 
capture-on-hydrogen experiments. From our analyses we conclude that the 
FPH y line is specious on the basis of three quantitative considerations: (1 ) it has 
a line width a factor of 2 smaller than the detector instrumental resolution 
would allow at 2.2 MeV; (2) there is no evidence of a Compton edge at 1.99 MeV 
(i.e., 2.22 MeV - 0.23 MeV), and this edge should be distinctly prominent; and (3) 
FPH’s estimate of the neutron source rate is a factor of 40 too large. Addition- 
ally, from terrestrial y background considerations, we conjecture that FPH's 
purported y line actually resides at 2.5 MeV rather than 2.2 MeV. Based solely 
on the three quantitative arguments, we conclude that the y signal of FPH 
cannot be the 2.2 MeV neutron-capture-on-hydrogen y ray. We can offer no 
plausible explanation for the feature, other than it is possibly an instrumental 
artifact unrelated to a y-ray interaction. 

y rays that result from neutron-capture*on*hydrogen. 

OS" . I?J>P 


MAY— 02- 1989 10=44 FROM M.I.T. 



Fleischmann, Pons, and Hawkins 1 (henceforth FPH) recently announced 2 
the observation of significant heating in their cold fusion experiments, a result 
which they attribute to copious fusion production. As compelling evidence of the 
occurrence of fusion processes, FPH reported to observe the 2.22 MeV y-ray line 

that originates from neutron-capture-on-hydrogen 3 - 4 

n + p D + y (2.22 MeV). (1) 

They contend that the neutron in (1) is generated via the reaction 

D + D -» n + He 3 (2) 

and, therefore, conclude that the 2.22 MeV y ray identifies that process (2) is 
occurring. They further state that most of the heat generation occurs not 
through process (2), but through a hitherto unknown nuclear fusion process. 

This paper focuses solely on the identity of their reported y-ray line, which 
we henceforth call the SL (signal line). We will argue herein that FPH's 
conclusion of having observed the 2.22 MeV line of Equation 1 is unfounded. We 
will do this on the basis of three quantitative considerations: (1) the line width is 
a factor of 2 smaller than their instrumental resolution would allow; (2) a clearly 
defined Compton edge, which should be evident in their published data at 1 .99 
MeV, does not exist; and (3) their estimated neutron rate is in error by a factor of 
40, i.e., it is 40 times too large. These conclusions are, in part, based on 
neutron-capture-on-hydrogen experiments using a well calibrated neutron 
source (1 Ci PuBe, 10 6 n/s) that was submerged in water. The results show a 
line at 2.2 MeV of the proper line width for our spectrometer and theirs. Also 
evident in our spectra are other critical identifying features of the 2.2 MeV y ray, 
i.e., the Compton edge (at 1.99 MeV), and the first (1.7 MeV) and second 
(1.2MeV) pair escape peaks. 

II. Inconsistencies in t he y Line of Reference 1 

In this section we raise three quantitative objections regarding the nature 
and consequences of the reported 2.2 MeV y line of FPH 1 (Figure 2 herein). The 
first concerns its line width; the second, the absence of the Compton edge 12 that 
should have been clearly present in their published data (Figure 2); and the 
third, their overestimate of the neutron source rate by a factor of 40. In Section 
Hd we conjecture that FPH’s $L (signal line) occurs at 2.5 MeV, not 2.2 MeV. 

A. Energy Resolution 

We have measured terrestrial y-ray background at MIT in order to verify. 
FPH results. Figure la shows a typical y-ray terrestrial background spectrum 
obtained with a 3" x 3" NaI(T4) crystal spectrometer system. Citation 5 discusses 

many details of our measurements for various sites, shielding conditions, 
crystals, and it also specifies germane spectrometer parameters. Throughout 
the terrestrial environment, the main features of this spectrum are quite 
similar. 6 * 7 Of particular importance to this work, Fleischmann, Pons, and 
Hawkins showed a similar y-ray spectrum on local (KSL-TV/Utah) and national 
(CNN) television (Figure lb) 2 This spectrum was obtained in the course of 
FPH’s experiments, as confirmed by M. Hawkins 8 (of FPH), Their spectrometer 
system was comprised of a Nuclear Data ND 6 portable analyzer with a 3 x3 
Nal (T l) crystal 8 * 9 * 1 * 2 . A 3/8’’-thick Pb annulus encompassed the scintillator 8 - 9 - 2 . 
By comparing Figures la and lb, especially the K 40 (1.46 MeV) and T£ 208 (2.61 
MeV) lines, one can see that our resolution is comparable to or better than the 
FPH spectrometer, a point which we will return to shortly. 

In the interval from 1.46 MeV to 2.61 MeV, the energy resolution of a 
Nal(T^) spectrometer, which is the property that determines the line width, can 

MAY-02- 1 989 10=45 FROM M . I . T . 

be well described by the formula 14 - 15 

R(E)=^ - R(E„) JEW (3) 

AE is the full-width-at'half maximum of the line, E is the energy of the photon, 
and R(E n ) is the measured "reference" resolution at energy E n . R(E n ) can be 
accurately determined by a Co 60 source (using the line at 1.33 MeV), or it can be 
fairly well approximated by the K 40 -decay line at 1.46 MeV. 16 For example, the 
value of R (E n = 1.46 MeV), as determined from Figure la, is about 5.5%. Using 

this value in Equation 3, the predicted FWHM for the 2.22 MeV line is about 
4.5%. (See Table la for a complete listing of our measured and predicted line 
widths.) If instead the Co 60 source is used (1.33 MeV; for which 
R (1.33 MeV) =s 5.1%) as the reference, the predicted 2.22 MeV line width is about 
4.0%. For comparison, we also list in Table lb the resolution data that is based 
on the FPH televised spectrum 2 and laboratory calibrations. 9 

We now report on the measured line width obtained from neutron- 
capture-on-hydrogen experiments that we recently performed in our laboratory 
(Figures 3 and 4). These experiments involved placing a 10 6 n/s PuBe neutron 
source in a water tank. (One Ci of 94 Pu 239 emits energetic a particles which 
produce neutrons, through (ct, n) reactions with Be, at a rate of 10 6 n/s. 12 ) The 
neutrons are thermaiized in water, and we observe the emitted neutron-capture 
y rays with our spectrometers. The measured line width at 2.2 MeV is about 5% 

(Table la). 

Note that the expected line width of the 2.2 MeV y ray is reasonably well 
predicted by Equation 3. As a consequence, this calls into serious question the 


917147212283 P n - 


MAY-02- 1989 10=46 FROM M . I . T. 


917147212288 P.06 

- 6 - 

identity of the SL as a y line. Specifically, Figure 2 shows the SL to have a line 
width of 2.5%. This is about a factor of 2 smaller than predicted via Equation 3 
on the basis of the known resolution (Table lb) from either the K 4 $ decay line (1 .46 
MeV)2.9.l€ or from the Co 60 (1.33 MeV) source 9 . Since we know from Table 1 that 
the’ FPH spectrometer has a resolution at best comparable to our own for the 
entire region from 1.46 to 2.61 MeV (see also Figures la and lb), it is inconsistent 
that their line width at 2.22 MeV is a factor of two below the predicted value. 

B. Spectral Shane 

There is another inconsistency with the published SL (Figure 2). If we 
assume a resolution 2.5% at 2.22 MeV, then there should be a clearly defined 
Compton edge 12 at 1.99 MeV. For example, in Figure 3 and 4 the Compton edge 
is evident even for our measured resolution of only 5%. For a line width of 2.5%, 
the definition of the Compton edge would be distinctly sharper. Therefore, the 
lack of a Compton edge at 1.99 MeV for the SL (Figure 2) negates the conclusion 
of FPH that they have observed the 2.22 MeV neutron-capture-on-hydrogen 
gamma. t ▼ 

It is also worthwhile pointing out that in our (PuBe) neutron capture 
experiments, a conspicuous e + - e* annihilation single escape peak exists at 1 .7 
MeV (Figures 3 and 4a) as well as a double escape peak at 1.2 MeV (Figure 4a). 
Such features unambiguously identify the primary y rays to have an energy of 
2.2 MeV (see References 3 and 4) and are a necessary consequence of the 
physical process of detection of gamma rays in a finite size Nal scintillator. 

c. Neutron Rate-Accordi ng to the 2.2 MeV y Rate 

FPH claim to have observed an effective neutron rate of 4 x lOVs. 1 This 

cannot be correct for the following quantitative reasons. The PuBe neutron 

source used in our experiment is absolutely calibrated to within 10% of 10^ n/s by 

the MIT Reactor Radiation Protection Office. 1 7 In obtaining the data in Figure 

3, we used a setup similar to that of FPH as depicted on television 2 Our PuBe 

source was submerged 6" into a large water tank. The measured 2.2 MeV y rate 

was 1.7 x 10 3 /MeV-s (see Figure 3). Scaling this rate to a neutron source of 4 x 


10 4 .n/s, i.e., the level given by FPH, gives a y rate of j^ e y. g • This value is a 

factor of 40 higher than the rate calculable from Figure la of FPH (i.e., 

„ , VljL. ) While differences of a factor of 2 in rates could be explained on the 

basis of geometry, a factor of 40 is inexplicable. 

D. Energy Location 

A further point concerning the identification of the signal line (SL) shown 
in Figure 2 is the precise value of the energy at which the peak occurred. From 
Figure 2, the background in the neighborhood of the peak is seen to be 
approximately 80 counts per channel, a level which would correspond to about 
400 counts per channel for a 48-hour accumulation time. (The data in Figure 2 
■was accumulated for a period of 10 hours. 1 ) On the other hand, in the Utah 
terrestrial y*ray background measurements, the level in the vicinity of 2.2 MeV 
was found to be in the range of -4000 counts per channel. 9 The only relevant 
part of the entire y-ray spectrum (i.e., between 1.46 and 2.61 MeV) where the 
background was as low as 400 counts was at an energy in the vicinity of 
2.5 MeV. 9 Thus, we conjecture that the peak in the spectrum shown in Figure 2 
may actually be at about 2.5 MeV. 

The importance of properly identifying the energy of the feature claimed 

by FPH can hardly be overemphasized. Thus, it seems extremely peculiar that 
they chose to display only the energy range 1.9 * 2.3 MeV in their published 
Figure la, thereby not providing the supporting evidence of the K 40 (1.46 MeV) 
and T£ 2 08 (2.61 MeV) features which must be present in their spectra in order 

for their identification to be correct. 

HI: dondiAsicaa 

We have analyzed published 1 - 2 and unpublished 8 - 9 information regarding 
the y-ray spectra relevant to the Fleischmann, Pons, Hawkins experiments. 
Additionally we have compared this data with results of y-ray experiments 
specifically designed to test critical features. One set of experiments involved 
measuring the natural background y radiations and establishing the accuracy of 

an absolute energy calibration and detector resolution between 1.46 MeV (K 40 ) 
and 2.61 MeV (T£ 208 ). Another set of experiments involved detecting the 2.22 
MeV y line by submerging a (PuBe) neutron source into a water bath. The latter 
measurements clearly identified the 2.22 MeV capture y ray as well as other 
critical structures (i.e., the Compton edge, the first and second escape peaks, 
and the line width). The analysis showed: (1 ) the FPH line width at the reported 
2.2 MeV y ray to be a factor of two smaller than their instrumental resolution 
would allow at that energy; (2) that there is no indication of the Compton edge 
which should be distinctly evident at 1.99 MeV; and (3) that the neutron source 
strength reported by FPH is in error by a factor of 40, i.e., their actual strength 
should be 40 times smaller. Therefore, while it seems clear that FPH have 
observed a change in their y spectra bearing some correlation with detector 
location 8 - 9 - 1 , we conclude that it is unrelated to the 2.22 MeV neutron-capture 

MAY-02- 1989 10=47 FROM M.I.T. TO 9: 17: 1472 12288 

Y rays. We can offer no plausible explanation for the feature other than it is 
possibly an instrumental artifact with no relation to a y-ray interaction. 

Adag y ledgements 

We gratefully acknowledge the assistance of our colleagues Mr. Christian 
Kurz and Mr. Frederick F. McWilliams. For the use of a spectrometer system, 
we thank Professor George W. Clark. For useful discussions, we thank Mr. 
Marvin Hawkins and Mr. Robert Hoffman of the University of Utah. For 
valuable suggestions and criticisms throughout the course of this work, we are 
especially grateful to Dr. George R. Ricker, Jr. and Professor Dieter J. Sigmar. 
We are indebted to Ms. Janet K. Anderson for assembling this document. 
Supported in part by the U S. Department of Energy Contract No. DE-AC02- 

MAY-02- 1 989 10=48 FROM M . I . T. 




- 10 - 


1. M. Fleischmann, S. Pons, and M. Hawkins, J. Electroanal. Chem. 2£1 
(1989) 301-308; and errata. 

2. CNN-TV; KSL-TV (Utah); 3/24/89 and thereafter. 

3. B. Hamermesh and R. J. Culp, Phys. Rev. &2.G), (1953), 211. 

4. R. C. Greenwood and W. W. Black, Phys. Letts. £ (1966) 702. 

5. The terrestrial y-ray background and neutron-capture*on-hydrogen y-ray 
spectra were measured at MIT in order to check the FPH results. Two 3 ■ 
x 3" Nal(T^) scintillation detectors were principally used in the 

measurements (one from Canberra and one from Harshaw). These 
detectors have the same crystal size as the one used by FPH, and are 
expected to have comparable resolution. The amplifiers used were EG&G 
Ortec Model 113 preamplifier and Model 572 amplifier, respectively. The 
spectrum was recorded with both multichannel analyzers (Norland Model 
5300) and CAMAC pulse height analysis modules (LeCroy Model 3512, 
3587, 3588). The background y-ray spectra were measured at several 
different locations (in two buildings about 100 m apart) and with different 
shielding arrangements. For the same shielding conditions at different 
locations, the measured y-ray spectra are similar and their intensity 
variation is within 25 percent. The ratio of spectral features from 1.46 to 
2.61 MeV varies slightly with diverse shielding conditions, but the 
absolute level (referenced to K ^ (1.46 MeV)) can vary by a factor of 20, i.e., 
from no shielding to entombment in 4" thick of Pb. The data shown in 
Figure la was obtained with the detector surrounded by 4 of lead, except 

48 FROM M.I.T 

at the top which viewed a large water tank. The data shown in Figures 3 
and 4 were obtained with the detector shielded with a 3/8" thick, 15 long 
lead pipe and that was located over a water tank. FPH also used 3/8’ thick 
Pb for their detector shielding 5 - 9 ’ 2 . (From the data we obtained (see Table 
1 ). our sDectrometers have somewhat better resolution.) 

M. Eisenbud, Emd 
and London (1973) 

J. A. S. Adams and W. M. Lowder, 

The University of Chicago Press, Chicago and London (1964). 

8. Marvin Hawkins, University of Utah, private communications (1989). 

9. Robert Hoffman. University of Utah, private communications (1989). 

10. Michael C. Lederer, Jack M. Hollander, and Isadore Perlman, Table , o f. 
Isotopes . 6th Edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. (1967). 

11. As explained in Reference 10, the immediate parent of the final decay 
product is identified. For example, K 40 p + decays into an excited 
nuclear state of Ar 40 , which actually then emits the 1.460 MeV photon 
discussed throughout the text. 

12 . 

Glenn F. Knoll, 

, John Wiley & 

Sons, Inc. (1979). 

13. We believe we have viewed all the cold fusion y spectra shown on 

KSL-TV (Utah) that occurred up until 4/19/89. As best we can tell, they are 
all identical to that shown in Figure lb. 


P. 11 

MAY-02-1989 10=49 FROM M.I.T. 

91714721 2298 

14. Harshaw Radiation Detectors, Scintillation Counting Principles, 6801 
Cochran Road, Solon, Ohio, 441 39 (1 984). 

15. C. E. Crouthamel, Applied Gam ma-Rav_SnectrometrY., 2nd Edition by F. 
Adams and R. Dams, Pergamon Press, Ltd. (1970). 

16. From Figure lb, the K 40 -decay line allows one to estimate the FPH 
resolution as about 8%. 

17. Frederick F. McWilliams, MIT Reactor Radiation Protection Officer. 

MAY-02- 1989 12=48 FROM M . I . T. 




Fig. 1 Comparison of the y-ray background spectrum measured at MIT 

(top) and the y*ray spectrum shown on television by FPH 2 
(bottom), a) The background spectrum measured with a 3" x 3” 
NaI(T4) detector at MIT. Some important terrestrial y-ray lines 
have been identified in this figure. The spectrum is averaged over 
an 84-hour run. b) The y-ray spectrum of FPH 2 . The main 
characteristics of the two spectra are similar; one can also tell that 
the two detectors have comparable spectral resolution. In Figure 
lb, note the curious structure at about 2.5 MeV and that beyond the 
T£ 20 ® peak (2.61 MeV), which appear to be artifacts. (The Figure lb 
spectrum can be obtained from KSL-TV in Utah. 13 ) 

jr i c.n. ruiu * -I— i=.—o=> 

x ^ * “ r -Hi I >Q1 I iJ-'JJ i iuu-titgiT 

2000 2200 2400 


Fig. 2 A reproduction of the reported y*ray signal line (SL) by FPH in 

Figure la of Reference 1. The line width of the signal line is about 
2.5%. With such resolution, one would expect to see a clearly 
defined Compton edge at 1.99 MeV. No edge is evident. Also, a line 
width of 2.5% is inconsistent with the spectral resolution, as can be 
determined from the K 4 0 line width of Figure lb (see text). 

Count Rote (1/MeV/sl 


bi;C^tr;uA itLCLuriL^ ,-uxu * 


041.0 i'vJj ++ O 


Fig. 3 

Q3 1 A fcJ . h-OHI'I , Di I jSpSyoS;)dl IOuHA*iUi-7 

12=49 FROM M.I.T. TO 97147212288 P 

- 16 - 

Energy ( Me V ) 

Y-ray spectrum measured by a 3” x 3" Nal(TY) spectrometer during 
a neutron-capture-on-hydrogen experiment, which utilized a 
(PuBe) neutron source submerged in water. Because of the finite 
size of the crystal (which is identical to that of FPH (Reference 1)), 
we also see an escape peak and the Compton edge (identified in the 
figure). The single escape peak is caused by the loss of the 0.511 
MeV photons which are generated during e + -e* annihilation. The 
Compton edge is determined by the maximum energy an electron 
can obtain in a single Compton interaction. The energy gap 
between the Compton edge and the incident photon energy is 0.23 

MeV for 2.22 MeV y rays. 


Count Rate (1/MeV/sl 

MPY-02-1989 12:49 FROM M.I.T. 


Fig. 4 The full y-ray spectrum measured at MIT in a neutron-capture-on- 
hydrogen experiment, which utilized a (PuBe) neutron source 
submerged in water, a) The y-ray spectrum due to (n, y) reaction. 
One can see the single and double pair escape peaks, and of 
particular importance to this paper, the Compton edge, b) The y-ray 
background measured with the same experimental setup and at the 
same location during a 24-hour period prior to the neutron experi- 
ment. The vertical scale in the figure is in counts per 100 minutes. 
See Citation 5 for the experimental arrangement. 

MAY-02- 1989 13:43 FROM 

M. I.T. 





6 iv. 


>-Ray-Spectra in the FVfarhwmnn. 
Pons. Hawkins RTryrimpnt 

R.^Petrfisso,X^Ghen, K. W. Wenzel, 
t. R . j^ark er^J^K. Li, and C. Fiore 
~FiSsmaFusion Center 

* *■ MwAVAA 

Massachusetts Institute of Technology 
Cambridge, MA 02139 

April 1989 





0 s 

* ** * ***** * + * * + * * ***** *********** + + * 
pax t^ransmittau memo 

TP: Z>! 


) FAX #: _ 


CO: fax #: _ 

Po*t-lt "brand fax transmittal memo 7671 

To be presented at the American Physical Society Meeting, May 1, 1989, 
Baltimore, Maryland 

Department of Chemiatry and Biochemistry 
3048 Young Hall, 607 Circle Drive South 
University of California, Lob Angeles 
Loe Angeles, California 90024-1J569 

Telephone 213-825-6148 ^ ^ 


DATE; 5-1-89 


Dr„ Richard Garuiin 

Thomas* J. Watson ft«»«Nw-ch Cautrr- 714-721-2288 

P.O. Box 218 \ ' 

V c r ' k t o uj 1 1 H *' i s h t » » NY 1 o ?S28 

FROM; M. A. El-Sayed 

Total pages : cover + 1 ^ 

Message : 


Manuscript for your review and review form attached 


oSb/ $<?mAES 

The Journal of Physical Chemistry 



Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry 
University of California 
LoS Angeles, California 90024-1569 
Phone (213) B25-1352 


May 1, 1989 

Dr . Richard Garvin 

Thomas J. Watson Research Center 
P.0. Box 218 

Yotktown Heights, NY 10598 
Dear Dr. Garwin: 

Reference is made to the manuscript (Number JP8906Q0J) entitled "Two 
Innocent Chemists Look at Cold Fusion." 

The enclosed manuscript has been submitted to us for publication 
as a Letter in the Journal of Physical Chemistry. Publication in 
the newly instituted Letters section of the Journal of Physical Chemistry 
is reserved for research whose urgent publication is deemed necessary 
, or . physical chemistry and chemical physics community. They are 
limited to 2000 words each (“ 8 double spaced typewritten pages and 

3 or 4 figures) and a 100-word abstract. Letters have the format 
of short papers. 

your comments on the merit and quality of presentation of 
thpr *. B ^ USCript, 4 Doee ltS ori & lnalit y warrant publication as a Letter? Are 
i * JJ fln C can th ®y be corrected to make the manuscript acceptable? 
tbul h ^rsh adequate? (Most Letters are proofread by the publisher; 
thus, we and the authors are especially grateful to reviewers who 
catch minor, correctable errors before they are set in print.) 

Prompt reviewing and publication is very essential for accepted publications 
in the Letters section (if you cannot review the enclosed manuscript 
within 10 days, please return it immediately), Please use the enclosed 
form for your review, attaching additional sheets if needed. 

Sincerely yours, 

A 4 %. I 

M. A, El-Sayed 



hF'R £8 '89 10! £4 U OF U 



Two Innocent Chemists Look at Cold 

Cheves Walling and Jack Simons* 
Chemistry Department 
University of Utah 
Salt Lake City, Utah 84112 




HAY 1 

JOUKnal u , 


We propose that the large energy release reported in the 
experiments of Fleischmann, Pons, and Hawkins is the consequence 
of 2 H fusion accelerated through screening by neighboring "heavy 
electrons" with mass m* s 10 electron masses. The presence of the Pd 
lattice is proposed to also accelerate the radiationless relaxation (RR) 
of the transient excited ^He*, perhaps by an internal conversion (IC)* 
like process. If RR exceeds the rate of fragmentation of 4 He*. this can 
explain why the bulk of the energy is released as heat rather than 
via neutron and tritium production. Symmetry considerations show 
that low*energy fusion can lead to different product-channel 
branching ratios than are observed in high-energy experiments. Our 
analysis also suggests that the rate of *H + fusion may be 
comparable to or even in excess of that of 2 H + fusion in the Pd 
lattice, so that fusion might even be observed in water of natural- 
abundance deuterium content. 




Reviewer 4 

Letters are short articles { 8 double-spaced typewritten pages and 3A figures! that could be 

the final publication of work. They deserve speedy publication due to their significant contribu- 
tions to ihelr respective fields and the urgency of exposing the scientific community to their 
contents. Letters are allowed very short time (or proofreading and should thuj ba free of errors, 


Chcves Walling and Jack Simons 


Two Innocent Chemists Look at Cold Fusion 



May 15, 1989 


1. I feel that the enclosed manuscript presents research of such 
originality and current interest to justify its publication in the 

Letters section In Its present form; ; after a minor 

chango ; after major chanyes 

(give In Comments section below). 

2. | (eel that the work is good and sound and should be published 

In The Journal of Physical Chemistry but the urgency of its 
publication is not quite justified end thus the work should be 
published as a paper in its present form. , ; 

COMMENTS; (Use additional pages if necessary) 

after minor changes,, i after major changes 

(give ir> Comments sactionl. 

3. I don't feel that this work Is of sufflcent interest to physical 
chemists or chemical physlclstsand thus should not be published 

inThe Journal of Physical Chemistry — — Jthe 

author(s) might lesubmit it to; 

(give loumal name it possible), 

4 . The work should not be published 


HPf? 28 '89 ie:£5 U OF U 



I. Overview of the Findings aricl Introduction to the Model 

Recently* Fleischmanrif Pons, and Hawkins 1 leportetrThat the 
prolonged electrochemical^ charging of a palladium cathode with 

electrolysis of 

deuterium formed by electrolysis of solution reads to the 

evolution neutrons and tritium together ^ ith 

eat on a scale not easily reconciled with any known chej nicaP 
reactto n/'Tlfls~7eport has attracted world-wide attention and no little 
skepticism, although, at this time, there appears to have been 
piecemeal confirmation^ of the^} results in ajmmba^f laboratories. 

Xhe- e volution o fT ritium and neutrons -I s - - eonslstent-- with the 
well-known fusion of deuterium to form an excited helium nucleus 


4 He* with 23,85 MeV of excess energy 
2 2H => 4He* 


which, under conditions studied by physicists, decomposes to roughly 
equal quantities of 3 He and 3 H . « j0 ^ 

*He* => 3Hc + n + 3,25 MeV (^r (2) 

+ (3) 

The most plausifele-eTtpIanSion of the apparent enhanced rate of 2 H + 
2 H fusion Involves a tunnelling phenomenon aided by screening of 
the coulomb repulsion between the 2 h + ions by the surrounding 
electron density3 in the lattice as discussed further below, The 
conventional reaction sequence (1-3) produces a predictable amount 
of heat, based upon that generated in the neutron* and 3 h- 
producing reactions. The moqt startling feature of the experimental 
results of rcf.m is that the actua l heat production, measured bv 
simple ca lorimetry, is 10 7 » iq IO as large as that expected from the 
above reaction sequence, given the neutron and tritium counts 
measured. Clearly, if these experiments are correct, the major path 
of energy production is something quite different. 

At the molecular level with which chemists are familiar, 
electronically excited states of molecules are known to lose their 
energy by at least three well-recognized paths; A) dissociation of the 
molecule by the breaking of chemical bonds; B) emission of light 
(fluorescence or phosphorescence); C) radiationless transfer of energy 
to surrounding molecules, usually as vibrational energy, but 
sometimes by converting surrounding species to electronically 

PPR 20 '89 18:26 IJ OF U 




excited or ionized states. Analogs of each of these are known for the 
decay of excited nuclei. Reactions (2) and (3) clearly parallel path A. 
The analog of path B is y* ray emission; this was not happening in the 
experiments of ref.(l) since it would have carried most of the energy 
out of the reaction vessel, and the resulting lethal level of radiation 
would have been detected by radiation monitors in the laboratory. A 
nuclear analog of path C is known 4 as internal conversion (IC) in 
which energy is transferred from the excited 4 He* nucleus by 
coupling to neighboring electrons (here, of the solid’s bands). In the 
^process, jh^lectron^ may be ejected Eft, a fraction of 

eventually produce heat within the 

palladium electrodeT^ 

4h«* -> 4 Ho + heat (S 24 MeV). (4) 

Our proposal of a radiationless-relaxation (RR) path (perhaps 
IC), in which energy is transferred to the PdD x lattice, perhaps 
mediated through the lattice electrons, is certainly attractive from 
the point of view of heat and energy production, since it predicts that 
each fusion event could produce up to 24 MeV of energy, 
unaccompanied by a large, troublesome neutron flux or by 
formation. Our proposal predicts a rather copious production of 4 He; 
in a reaction generating 10 watts cm- 3 of excess energy (in the range 
which has been observed*) or some 6,4 x 10 1 3 MeV cm- 3 sec- 1 of 
heat, one expects 2.6 xl0*2 fusions cm‘3 sec* if each fusion results 
in the liberation of 24 MeV of heat. 

Pons and Hawkins have informed us^ that mass spectrometric 
analysis of evolved gases from a cell operating at 200 milliamps with 
an electrode volume of 0.0785 cm 3 and delivering 0.5 watts cm- 3 of 
excess heat showed a 4 He/D2 ratio of 10* 5 to 10* 6 and substantially 

of a number of ^ank^ determinations, With the 
each two electrons reduce one D 2 O molecule to yield 
one D 2 molecule in the gas phase (the lattice is saturated at steady 
state), one predicts that 8 xlO 1 ^ D 2 molecules per cm 3 per sec are 
liberated, The mass spectroscopy ratio then implies a rate of 4 He 
production of 8 xlO 12 to 8 xlO 13 atoms of 4 He cm* 3 sec - *. The excess 
energy production of 0.5 watts cm* 3 corresponds to 3.2 xlO 12 MeV 
The fact "that- thF~rari e=o^4he=heafc^prod Hetl0ft-an4 =4ae- 

fit- ^ [, ] y/<J 1 H 6^ 1 ex- ^ 

cA ^ B'OU jf\ 

cm* 3 sec 


RC'v 1 



05/01/89 11:37 
hPR 28 ‘89 18! £7 U OF U 

1-tsy U:39flM J 213 206 6b28-J 

O 213 206^623 



62675 ; n 

@ 07 

production- r6te»/is--(37f/8^0j MeV per 4 he~ts evidence in fayor-of-a 
nutte ar pieces ybe t iig:4mH» lrpm Tha^^1T& _ TMkF4t^o^-^ MeV is. nor • 

mass spectroscopic determination of the 
4 He/D2 ratio it-nnn c rtam rrw ^Ueas t-d Jit cigs^ present, further 
experimental work Is in progress to search for 4 He in other cells and 
to better quantitate the 4 He/D 2 ratio for these cells. 

As far as we know, radiationless relaxation has not previously 
been observed in deuterium fusion reactions or in the decay of other 
4 He* states, Clearly, the question is "why might it be occurring in the 
experiments of ref.(l)?" In the model described here, it is 
demonstrated that the same effec , ts_ T which mav lead to accel erated 
fusion, (the presence of the lattice electron density as well as the low-, 
energy nature of the process! mav also greatly increase the rate of 
radiationles s relaxation of the resulting 4 He» to an extent that RR 
may compete with the usual fragmentations (2) and (3). 

II. The Fusion Model 

To describe the fusion of two 2 h+ nuclei, we u$c=s-model -reudir 
iike=4fcat outlined in ref>(3). In our approach, the rate R (in fusion 
events per sec per 2 H + ) is given~as a collision frequency f multiplied 
by a probability of fusion ; R =(f * j) The rate can also be expressed 
as a cross-section o in cm 2 multiplied by a collision speed v in cm/sec 
and a probability factor P multiplied by the concentration C of 2 H + 
species: R ^C*o*v^)The total fusion rate of the cell, in fusions cm* 3 
s ec T l is theacomputed as either of these rates multiplied by C. It is 

Conventional^) 6 to express <? as S/(l/2 pv 2 )?C\yhere p is the 'reduced- 

masToTtliecolliding nuclei, v is their relative speedr-and^S^s a factor 
that describes the "size" and fusion efficiency of the nucleus in'~suctr 
collisions; this parameterization is used because experience shows 
that S is rather weakly dependent on energy, Results of both 
parameterizations will be presented below to provide some measure 
of how much the results depend on the particular model. 

In characterizing the state of the deuterium in the Pd metal, it 
is assumed that the mole ratio of ^H + to Pd is nearly 1:1. In fully 
saturated Pd, the ratio lies between 0.5 and 1.0; in what follows, a 
value of 0.7 is assumed, giving a 2 H+ density of 4.8 xl0^2 2 h + 







RCU BY: XEROX TELECOP I ER 7010 j 5- 1-89 11 :40AM : 213 206 6628-) 

'• 05/01/89 11:39 © 213 206 6628 J PHYS. CHEM. 

APR 23 ‘89 18:29 U OF U 


62675; 8 8 

a 08 


cm*3. This concentration implies an average spacing between 2 H + 
ions (if they wwc uniformly distributed) of 3. 4 A. If the temperature 
in the Pd lattice ranges from 300 *K to 1000 °K, the mean collision^ 
velocities or the 2 H+ pairs would be (2.7 to S)/^/ 2 xlO^ cm sec* 1 , 
where u/is the reduced mass, in amu’s; the nominal value of 
4 x 10^ cm sec 1 chosen here corresponds to a collision 
frequency of f i ^fjj^ 1 / 2 xlQ 1 ^ sec 1 (for each 2 H + ) and a 
colli^omil kinetW^nergy u v2 /2 = 8.4 xlQ' 8 MeV. 

5 he fusion probability function P is taken to be of the form^ 

P= exp(-2jra/-kv), where the parameter a characterizes the strength 
of the coulombic repulsion between the two nuclei. To determine a 
for the 2 H - 2 H interaction, the following procedure is used: (i) The 
expected^ fusion rate of isolated D2 of lQ'^-'jyWcijAsj jscd, in 
conjunction with a "collision frequency" of 7 xlO 1 ^ sec 1 ( the 
vibrational frequency of D2 is used in this case instead of the 
thermal collision frequency) and the corresponding velocity of 7 
xloS cm sec’ 1 and a reduced mass \i of 1,0 amu, to determine the 
value of a « 2.08 xlO' 2 ^. (ii) from this "fit", it follows that P= exp(* 

178 v/v*), where v*/v is the ratio of the collision speed in any 
particular situation and the speed 7 xlO 5 cm sec 1 used in 
determining a. If, alternatively, the fusion rate per 2 H+ is / ^ 

parameterized as C P v S/(l/2 4V 2 ), and the valued 6 S = ^f)xl0- 25 [ij 

MeV cm 2 is used with the above vibrational kinetic energies and 
speeds, one finds that P = exp(~170 v/v*) is needed to fit the rate of 
fusion of l0 w6iA . 

The first form for P and the collision frequency 
fs^r 1 / 2 1,3 xlOl 3 cm-3 sec -1 , permit the log of the fusion rate 
R (in sec -1 ) to be written as: log R * 13,6 ‘77 (v/v*) ; if the 
parameterization based on R = C v P S/E is used, one finds: ^ 

log R = * 74 (v/v*). To achieve a rate of ^He* formation equal to 
xJLilLL-cm^^ec' 1 (ai5s£^iS33^, given the concentration of 


uJ (O 


2 H + to be 4.8 xlO 22 2 H+ errr^; requires a fusion rate per 2 H+ of 5.4 
xlO -11 10 -1 0-3 fusions se/ 1 or a lifetime of 585 years. Using the 
log of this rate in the abov^ rate expression yields v*/v = 3.2 ( it 
gives v*/v s 3,5 if the mo^el based on R = Ov*P*S/E is used). 

^ j, 1 A Av^6'£ /t> M ( /A IM 

APR £8 '89 18= 80 IJ OF U 


P , 7 


As described on p.218 of ref(3), the effective collision energy E, 
which in the absence of any metallic screening would be equal to the 
thermal energy, can be increased because the surrounding sea of 
electrons in the metal serve to screen the repulsive coulomblc 
potential as the two nuclei undergo a collision. Reduction of the 
coulomb potential allows the two D + nuclei to approach more closely 
before reaching their classical turning points. This, in turn, requires 
tunnelling through a shorter distance to reach the region where the 
strong nuclear forces exist. This same energy lowering can, 
alternatively, be modelled in terms of the "binding" together of the 
two ^H 4- ions due to6>7»8 "heavy electrons" in the metal. In either 
model, the collision energy £ of the 2 h + pair is viewed as increased 
by a factor m* equal to the ratio of the metal's effective electron 
mass and the bare electron mass: E*/E * m*. Considering this increase 
in energy, which yields a speed ratio v*/v * allows the fusion 

rate expressions to be extended to treat events taking place in the 
presence of screening for which: 

log R = 13.6 -77 (pl/2 / m *l/2) , 


log R = 10.6 -74 (nl/2 /m* 1 / 2 ). 


In terms of the model introduced here to "explain" cold fusion in 
deuterium-loaded Pd metal, the rate acceleration required to account 
for the production of 10 watts/cm^ requires an effective electron 
mass of m* = 10 (m* » 12.5 for the second model). 

III. Possibilities of Fusion Involving Other Isotopes 

These same models can be used to predict the rates of other 
fusion events that might occur in the Pd system. The estimated rates 
of fusion in the absence of screening given in ref.(6) are used to 
determine <x*values for each isotopic reaction in the first model. The 
S-values for the different isotopic reactions are tabulated in refs. (6) 
and (3). The two models predict 2 H + +4H, and 2 H + 3 H fusion 

rates^ot, 10 ‘ 8 *1 or 10 "®*^ or 1Q_~ 1 i and 10“ 12.4 or 

1 o4o»dj sec-1 , respectively, in the Pd metal. In each case, the first 
estimate is a result of the first model (m*»10) and the second arises 
from the S-based model (m*«12.5). Although these rate estimates 

*PR 23 ’39 16-31 U OF U 

should be tak Jn as rather uncertain, they suggest that the fusion of 
1 r + 2h (10-M or 10-11-6 sec'l) may be important, but thatlH + 3 H 
and + 3 h /fusion are pretty not for D 2 O or normal H 2 O (because 
of the abundances of JjJ^H-and 5 3 H ), They also suggest that, in 
ordinary H^ O - where D?Q occurs at Q.QISft in_nflt,ur a L a bund a nC . ff ,.. tbe , 
lH + 2 h fusion mav take place at appreciable rates because of the 
possibly large lH + to rate ratio of 10'®’1 to 10 l^' 3 - 

1 60.^1 1 clearly also indicates that mixtures of D 2 O and H 2 O might 
yield eve^t higher energy production (^H + lH => 3 He + y (5.6 MeV)) if 
the/^R process described below (or one like it) were also operative 
for^He* Although the energy per 2 r + lH fusion is only 23% of that 
involved in 4 He* decay, the possible 160-fold increase in fusion rate 
could yield a much larger energy production rate if the above 
estimates are accurate, The "ideal" H 2 O/D 2 O mole fraction can be 
calculated and depends on the fusion rate ratio, the energy per 
fusion ratio, as well as the Pd electrode’s selectivity for D- 
vs H- assimilation. Finally, the m* dependence of log R expressed in 
Eqs.(5) suggests that a search be undertaken for materials and/or 
conditions which permit high 2 H and/or 'H concentrations to be 

established^ and_which provide, through the lattice band structure, 
even larger m* values; such materials could yield even larger energy 
production rates. 

IV. Branching Ratios and Heat From Radiationless Relaxation 

Clearly, the production of large amounts of 4 He and heat and 
the relatively small yield of neutrons and tritium suggest that, in the 
Pd lattice, the nascent 4 He* nucleus is undergoing relaxation to 
ground-state 4 He at a rate that is fast compared to fragmentation or 
remission. Examination of the energy level diagram 9 shown in Fig. 1 
raises several possibilities: (i) the Pd lattice may accelerate RR of 
4 He* to rates that outstrip the rates of fragmentation, (ii) the Pd 
lattice may slow down the rates of fragmentation, (iii) the lattice may 
affect the admixture of excited 4 He* states formed in the initial 
fusion event in a manner that alters the final branching ratios. These 
possibilities are examined below. 


RPR 88 '89 13=32 U OF U 



A. Formation of 4 He* at Low Energy 

The low-energy (T ■ 300-3,000°K) and low-angular momentum 

fusion of two 2 H+ nuclei may preferentially populate the even-parity 
(0+.0) state of 4 He* (see Fig. 1). For collision energies in this range, it 
is straightforward to show that the collisional angular momentum is 
limited to 1*0. A small fraction of collisions may involve 1=1, but they 
will encounter and be stopped by their centrifugal barrier before 
reaching the tunnelling region where fusion can occur. For collisions 
having even 1.0 KeV of kinetic energy, l-values between 100 and 
T$00~t^sriimte, although only low l-values can move past their 
respective centrifugal barriers to distances where fusion may occur. 
The probability of an 1=0 collision is given by (lmax +0‘ 2 » where l raa x 
= 0 or 1 for low energies and l ma x ~ 100-1,000 for 1 KeV collisions. 

Given only 1*0 for low-energy collisions, and noting the even 
parity of the entrance-channel nuclear wavefunction (both 2 H hav< 
their nucleons spin paired to produce spin-1 states with all four 
nucleons in Is "orbitals"), it is most likely that low-energy fusion 
must follow an even-parity route, Only the small fraction of collisk 
with 1 2 1 can produce odd-parity states of 4 He*. Thus, we speculat 

that the thermal nature of the 2 H- 2 H collisions causes the even- 
parity (Q + ,0) state of 4 He* to be more strongly populated than in 

higher energy collisions, thereby giving rise to reduced amplitudes 

the mofe^quickly decaythg odd-parity 4 He* states at 21,1 and 22.1 
MeV. conversely, at higher energy, both odd and even parity state 
of 4 He* can be formed (from odd and even l-values, respectively), 
and the odd-parity states decay rapidly to *H+ 3 H or n+ 3 He. 

B. Relaxation of 4 He* to 4 He 

Once the 4 He* is formed (preferentially in the even-parity 
states), it must then undergo relaxation to produce ground-state 4 He. 
IC rates scale as the electron density near the nucleus from which 
they receive energy as do rates of all radiationless transitions that 
occur via energy transfer from the excited nucleus through the 
electrons to the lattice. Because this density could be greatly 
enhanced by the proximity of either Pd electrons or lattice electrons 
having large "effective masses" (perhaps m* - 10-12.5), it is useful to 
explore the possibility of 4 He formation via IC. 


y ^ i-i //■=' lH 

rtPR 2S '33 18=34 IJ OF ij 



In the calculations presented below, we estimate the rate of IC 
for a process in which a single electron carries away all 24 MeV of 
energy, We believe that this channel is only one of many that may be 
operative, so this rate represents a lower bound to what is likely the 
true RR rate. It is known that IC can eject K-shell, L-shell, and other 
electrons (see Blatt and Weisskopf- ref.(4)) and that more than one 
electron may be ejected (see Fowler-ref.(4)). It may therefore be 
possible for the excited nucleus to transfer its energy to several 
electrons, each of which subsequently undergoes thermalizing 
collisions (although some may escape the lattice and be detected). In 
the absence of a method for estimating the rate of such many* 
electron events, we present here the lower-bound estimate described 

The expressions given in Eqs. (5,15) and (5.21) of Blatt and 
Weisskopf 4 allow absolute rates of internal conversion to be 
estimated (for example, assuming the conversion of approximately 
24 MeV). Using Zs2 for the nascent '^He* nucleus and scaling the bohr 
radius ao by 1/m* to take accounf^bf the accumulation of heavy 
electrons near the 4 He* nucleus, one obtains a rate of 2, 7-6.7 xlO? 
sec* 1 for m* = 10-12,5 (for which the Is bohr frequency of 4 He heavy 
electrons is of the order of 10 17 sec- 1 ), Although this calculation was 
carried out using the heavy electron concept, it may be that RR is 
enhanced instead by high electron density contributed by the 
neighboring Pd centers (where the density of conventional electrons 
is even higher than that computed for heavy electrons near 4 He* 
nuclei and where the inner-shell electrons have Jg phr frequencies nf / 
the^rderjiLK) 1 ^ sec* 1 ), It should be noted that WwseyRRe^rg^^ 
tr^nsfef_rat^a^aie in line with isomer shifts in NflJsstjauer 
spectroscopy 10 (e.g., an isomer shift of 1 mm/sec corresponds co a 
frequency shift of 4,8 xlO 11 sec 1 for a 24 MeV photon), Isomer 
shifts reflect the differential effects on the energies of the ground 
and excited nuclear states caused by the electron density near the 
nucleus. Finally it should be stressed that RR rates need only be 
cd ^derab jy^ster than the rates of fragmentation to either 3 He + n 
or^H + iH for this model to be consistent with the observations. 


APR SB '89 10! 35 U OF U 


P. 11 


It is not known (to us) what the absolute rates of 
fragmentation of ^He* to ^He + n or ^ H are m the Pd Iftttlfifi * 
Fragmentation from the odd-parity 4 He* states at 22.1 MeV and 21.1 V 
MeV may occur very rapidly, although these processes require 
substantial recouplings of the nucleons (because in each fragment 
channel one of the nuclei- *He or 3 H* has two of its nucleons with la* 
orbital occupancy). Moreover, as argued earlier, these states are 
unlikely to be heavily populated in low-energy fusion, In contrast, 
fragmentation from the 20,1 MeV state, which would be 
preferentially populated in the thermal collisions, may be 
considerably slower. Clearly, if the ^He* fragmentation rates are 
much less than the RR rate, little neutron or tritium signal will be 
detected. Moreover, if the amplitudes of the rapidly decaying odd- 
parity States of 4 He* are much smaller than those of the state(s) that 
decay slowly enough to undergo RR (e.g., the (0 + ,0) state), more heat 
and 4 He and less neutron and tritium production would be observed. 

In either case, the lattice and the low-energy nature of the process 
play important roles. 

APR £8 '89 18: 36 U OF U 


P. 12 


IV, Summary 

In summary, we propose that the high rate of energy 
production observed by Pleischmann, Pons, and Hawkins^ arises 
from fusion via a tunnelling process facilitated by shielding of the 
coulombic repulsion between nuclei by neighboring electrons in 
the PdD x lattice. We further propose that lattice effects also facilitate 
the radiationless relaxation of (by enhancing RR rates and/or 
preferentially populating states of 4 He* that fragment slowly), so that 
the bulk of the energy is detected as heat, with reduced neutron and 
tritium production. We present a symmetry argument to explain why 
low-energy branching ratios can be qualitatively different than those 
observed at high collision energies. We further suggest that fusion of 
and is also accelerated and might be an even more rapid 
process. Finally, we believe that, even if our analysis is incorrect in 
detail, any model interpreting accelerated low-energy fusion as due 
to electronic shielding and lattice effects will predict a parallel 
increase in the rate of radiationless relaxation of the excited nuclei 


P. 13 


APR 30 'S9 IB: 3? U OF U 

Acknowledgments J,S. wishes to thank Prof. Julian Schwinger for 
very stimulating and encouraging conversations, Prof. J. D. Jackson 
for critical guidance, and Peg Simons for constructive proofreading. 


1. Fleischmann, M., Pons, S„ and Hawkins, M„ J. Electroanal. Chem. 

1989 2&L 301. 

2. At this time, based on news reports and private communication. 

3. Harrison, E. R„ Proc. Phys. Soc. 1964 M, 213 deals with the 
concept of enhanced tunnelling due to screening by electrons in the 
surrounding medium for so-called pycnonuciear reactions. He a 
presents the tunnelling formula used here. We view the screening as 
taking place for D+- D+ distances of the order of Angstroms down to 
perhaps several tenths of Angstroms and resulting primarily in a 
reduction of the coulomb potential at these lengths. Such a reduction 
moves the D + - D + potential curve's outer turning point inward, 
thereby reducing the distance through which tunnelling must occur. 

4. Fowler, R. H„ Proc. Roy. Soc. 1930 122, 1 provides one of the 
earliest accounts on the internal conversion process which now 
appears in most texts on nuclear physics. Blatt and Weisskopf give, 
on pgs. 617 and 621 of their text Theoretical Nuclear PhYSid . John 
Wiley & Sons, New York (1952), expressions for the rates of internal 
conversions for states which may or may not also undergo 

5. B. S. Pons and M. Hawkins, private communication to the authors. 

6. April -of"! 989, we received a reprint entitled Cold f fusion i n 

molecular hvdroyen by Koonin, S. E. and Nauenberg, Nt from 
Professor S. Pons. In this paper, fusion rates for D 2 , 

HD, HT, and DT are estimated and enhanced fusion rates are 

APR 58 '88 18:38 U OF U 




computed and attributed to "heavy electrons” using a method which 
is essentially the same as our S-based method (except for values of 
the collision energies and velocities used). No mention of Internal 
conversion or any other mechanism for dissipating the 4 He* s excess 
energy as heat is made in this preprint. 

7. The concept of an effective electron mass is well established in 
solid-state physics; it is discussed, for example, in the text Quantum 
Monies by A. S. Davydov, NEO Press, Ann Arbor, Michigan (1966). 

See also ref.(8). 

8. In muon-catalyzed fusion (see, for example, Jackson, J. D. Phys. 

Rev. 1957 106 . 330 and Van Sichlen, C. DeW and Jones, S. E., J. Phys. 

0. Nucl. Phys. 1966 12., 213 ), the internuclear distances are 
shortened, potential well depths Increased, and inner turning points 
moved inward in much the same way as suggested here; the 
screening caused by the lattice electrons acts much as the muon does, 
although the fact that only one muon is present per 2 H + pair whereas 
the 2 H + are surrounded by many electrons may cause the heavy 
electrons" and muons to behave differently as far as radiationless 
relaxation Is concerned, 

9. Fiarman, S. and Meyerhof, W, E., Nuclear Physics 1973 A2M, !■ 

10. Dickson, P. E. and Berry, F. J., MMailfil Soectroscoax , Cambridge 
University Press, Cambridge (1986). 

APR 28 7 89 18139 U OF U 




2 2 H, 23.85 

(2 ,0) 22. 1 
( 0 ', 0 ) 21.1 — 

(0*,0) 20.1-^ 

3 He + n, 20.6 
3 H + 'h. 19.8 

“He (0 + ,0) 
0.0 MeV 


Figure 1. Energy Level Diagram for He and the 

3 1 3 

Two Fragment Channels- H + H and He + n. 

All Energies are in MeV, The Symmetry Labels 
Refer (ref.(9)) to Angular Momentum J, Parity +/-. 
and Isospin T: (J +/ \ T), 



J. F. Ziegler, T. H. Zabel, J. J. Cuomo, V. A. Brusic, 
G. S. Cargill III, E. J. O'Sullivan and A. D. Marwick 

IBM Research Division 
TJ. Watson Research Center 

Yorktown, NY 10598 USA 

Recently, two scientific papers have reported positive detection of nuclear 
radiation from similar electro-chemical cells operating with deuterated 
water. Fleischmann and Pons have observed neutrons at about 2.5 MeV 
at a rate of about 4000/cm 3 — sec, and if the heat they observe is due to 
unobserved nuclear fusions, they have a fusion rate of about 10 12 
fusions/cm 3 — sec (the subscript "cm 3 " refers to the volume of Pd cathode 
used). In an independent work, Jones et al. have reported detecting 2.4 
MeV neutrons at a rate of 0.7 neutrons/cm 3 — sec from an electrolytic 

We have experimented with similar electrolytic cells and have looked for 
energetic charged particles which are characteristic of nuclear fusion re- 
actions. We report on six variations of the cell, with an upper limit of 
0.005 detected particles/cm 3 -sec. Within background statistics, we observe 
zero nuclear fusions. 


Two recent papers have created wide-spread interest in Cold Nuclear 
Fusion (CNF) by reporting the detection of nuclear reaction products 
from similar electrolytic cells. Fleischmann and Pons (1) have reported 
the observation of excess gamma rays, neutrons and 3 H from a cell with 
an anode of Pt, a cathode of Pd and an electrolyte of heavy water, D 2 0, 
with LiOD. Their gamma ray spectrum has a pronounced peak at 2.2 
MeV, which they suggest may be from a n + p nuclear reaction (the 
electrolytic cell is surrounded by a H 2 0 moderator and neutrons from 
CNF d + d reactions may interact with the protons in the water). Further, 
they report massive and sustained heat generation - of the order of 
4MJ/cm 3 . This heat cannot be accounted for by chemical means, so the 
conclusion they reach is that the heat must be due to CNF processes of 
an unknown type. The heat produced was observed to scale with the Pd 
cathode volume, so the CNF is presumed to occur throughout the cath- 
ode metal. 

Jones et al. (2) have reported the observation of neutrons during a similar 
electrolytic experiment, with an anode of Au, a cathode of Pd or Ti, and 
a complex electrolyte of various metallic salts (chosen to represent typical 
components of the Earth's crust) in heavy water, D 2 0. Their neutron 
spectrometer shows a peak at about 2.5 MeV, exactly the energy of the 
neutron produced by a d + d nuclear reaction. 

Both of the above experiments are difficult to reproduce in detail since 
there was minimal reporting of material analysis before or after the op- 
eration of the cells. No mention was made of contamination of the 
electrolyte from, for example, chemical erosion of the electrodes or of the 
glass cell walls. Neither group reported an analysis of the electrolyte or 
cathode after successful cell operation. Both groups have discussed an 
"incubation period" of charging the cathode, possibly to raise the 
deuterium concentration within the Pd cathode to the high levels found 
in - Pd. 


Both of these works reflect a long scientific interest in cold nuclear fusion 
which dates back to 1926 (3). A successful demonstration of CNF could 
have a profound effect on man's future. 

Our approach has been based on the fact that all exothermic cold nuclear 
fusion combinations have one product in common: energetic charged 
particles. The above reports have looked at gamma rays, neutrons and 
excess 3 H -- all of which have large backgrounds in most laboratories. 
However, energetic charged particles have a background only from na- 
turally occurring alpha particles and cosmic rays. Both of these can be 
reduced to levels of less than five detected particles per day, a level about 
10~ 6 less than that usually reported for the detection of gamma rays or 
neutrons. Further, the detection efficiency of particle detectors, such as 
silicon surface barrier detectors (SSB detectors), is about 100% for all 
energetic incident charged particles in contrast to efficiencies of less than 
10% for most gamma or neutron spectrometers. 

The charged particles from d + d fusion reactions range from 1 to 3 MeV. 
We have constructed electrolytic cells with Pd cathodes which directly 
cover SSB detectors, see Figure 1. Ref. (1) has shown that CNF scales 
with the volume of the Pd cathode. Hence any fusions which occur close 
to the back surface of the cathode may produce particles which can be 
detected by the SSB detectors. Since one d + d nuclear reaction product 
is an energetic proton (3.02 MeV) which has a range in Pd of about 30 
fim, then Pd cathodes thinner than 25 /urn will allow most of these emitted 
in a backward direction to be detected. 

Our cells have SSB detectors with a solid angle of about one tt and a 
background of about 5 counts/day (for 1 - 3 MeV particles). 

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE : The electrolytic cells are shown in 

Figure 1. Each cell is made from 8 cm diameter cylindrical teflon with 
a hollow cylindrical well 5 cm in diameter by 8 cm deep. A 7cm 2 conical 
hole in the inner surface of the cell leads to a 2 cm 2 Pd cathode. A sur- 
face barrier detector faces against the back of the cathode. 

The anode is made of Pt (99.9%), 2 cm wide by 4 cm long, with a thick- 
ness of .25 mm. Its distance from the cathode may be varied, but usually 
it is kept at a distance of 2 cm (as in Ref (2)). A thermocouple was at- 
tached to the top of the Pt anode to determine approximate electrolyte 
temperature without introducing possible contamination to the 

The cathode is Pd (99.9%), with thicknesses ranging from from .025 - 0.5 
mm. One problem with using Pd foils as a part of the cell wall (or fig- 
uratively as a cell window) is the possibility of hydrogen gas leaking out 
from the back surface of the cathode into the air. To prevent this leakage, 
dense Au films were sputter deposited on the back side of the Pd (the side 
away from the electrolyte). The Au was made to adhere firmly to the Pd 
by evaporating an intermediate layer of Cr, 200 A, which acted as a glue. 
These Au films ranged from 1.7 - 6.5 nm in thickness (the effectiveness 
of these films is discussed later). These films were thin enough to let 
charged particles pass with modest energy loss (protons at 2 MeV lose 90 

The electrolytic cell holds about 150 cc of electrolyte. The top is closed 
except for seven 1mm holes to release gas pressure and to allow adjust- 
ment of the anode position, see Fig. 1. The electrolyte consisted of vari- 
ous amounts of H 2 0 (100 %) and D 2 0 (99.5%), with 0.1 molar LiOD 
as the electrolyte. The lithium hydroxide was made from Li metal (90% 
6 Li and 10% 7 Li) reacted with D 2 0. The pH of the electrolyte was 
measured as 12.4. 


Various mixtures of H 2 0 and D 2 0 were tested as electrolytic solutions 
because conventional nuclear theory suggests that cold fusion reactions 
of d + p can have much greater cross-sections than d + d reactions. Since 
both Ref (1) and (2) did not use pure D 2 0, it was possible that they were 
seeing products of d + p reactions instead of the d + d reactions they pre- 
sumed. It was felt that a mixture of H 2 0 (10%) with D 2 0 (90%) would 
give comparable amounts of and 2 H within the Pd cathode metal on 
the basis of separation factors (5). We used mostly 6 Li for lithium since 
the cross-section for fusion of d with 6 Li is much higher than for 7 Li. 
However, the Li metal still contained 10% 7 Li. 

The surface barrier detectors were held at a reverse bias of 48 - 75 V to 
obtain about 100 fim of depletion. This is adequate for the detection of 
charged particles up to about 8 MeV. Particles with energies above this 
are still detected but some energy information is lost. The detectors were 
energy calibrated and tested using a standard 241 Am radioactive source. 


The anode - cathode current was held at 150 mA/cm 2 for all of the re- 
ported studies. Ref. (1) indicates that observed nuclear products scale 
with current density, so we selected a current density near the high end 
of their range of values. 

The above describes our experiment to detect CNF particles. All particle 
detectors have backgrounds, either due to trace radioactive materials in 
their fabrication, or due to cosmic rays interacting with the silicon. Ref. 
(3) reviews the background sources in silicon detectors and shows typical 
cosmic ray background rates. The rate we observed was statistically 
within the rate of this study. We note that we define "Background" as the 
spectrum observed with our experimental arrangement but with the cell 
current off. This assumes that there were no CNF particles generated 
while the cell was not in operation. Only one test was made of Back- 
ground both before and after operation of the cell, and no change was 


The "incubation" or "charging" period for our cathodes to form /I - Pd, 
Pd-hydride, will be shown to be less than 24 hours. Longer charging pe- 
riods might be necessary for Li in the electrolyte to penetrate into the Pd. 
We accelerated this process by artificially injecting Li into two of the Pd 
cathodes. In one case Li was introduced by capsule diffusion at 600 C. 
A second cathode was ion implanted with Li; half the cathode was im- 
planted with 6 Li (200 keV) to a dose of 10 15 Li/cm 2 , and the other half 
was implanted to 10 16 Li/cm 2 . Since we were looking for any kind of 
fusion, it was felt that having a mixed concentration of Li in the cathode 
would not compromise the experimental results. 

Next to the cells were standard biological neutron monitors, and gamma 
detectors. These were used for personnel safety, and had thresholds of 
0.1 mRem/hour. 

♦ iT\ 

As an independent evaluation of the "charging" of the Pd cathodes, the 
crystal structure of the Pd foils was determined by x-ray diffraction, using 
Zr-filtered Mo K a radiation and a scintillation detector, with a 0 - 2 0 
diffractometer and symmetrical reflection geometry. Measurements were 
made for scattering angles, 2 0, from 90° to 155°. 

EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS : All the experimental results are tabu- 

lated in Table 1. In no case was heat detected other than that caused by 
accountable electrical Joule heating of the electrolyte. Temperatures al- 
ways remained below 45 C. At no time did the neutron or gamma de- 
tectors near the cells register radiation above 0.1 mRem/hour. 

X-ray diffraction measurements were made on several of the Pd cathodes 
to evaluate the electrolysis time necessary to form /? - Pd (above 60% 
hydrogen) from the normal a - Pd, and to determine the adequacy of the 
Au hydrogen-sealing layers on the cathode backs. A cathode with a 
1.7um Au layer gave the diffraction pattern of a - Pd after 200 hours of 


is. The lattice parameter was 3.92 A, somewhat larger than the 
published value for pure Pd (a - Pd), 3.89 A. 

Both thin (25um) and thick (0.5mm) Pd cathodes which were backed with 
about 6.3um Au films, after electrolysis for 24 hours, gave a pure /? - Pd 
pattern with a lattice parameter of 4.03 A, only slightly greater than the 
published value for Pd monohydride, 4.02 A, see Figure 3. There was 
no evidence for any a - Pd in the diffraction spectrum. This result indi- 
cates that 6.3um of dense Au provided an adequate hydrogen seal to the 
back surface of the Pd cathode. 

It is not clear whether the formation of /? - Pd is essential for the reported 
CNF, so we report results from both types of samples. 

One sample was pre-annealed to 900 C in a vacuum of 10~ 6 Torr for one 
hour. This anneal was intended to drive out any pre-absorbed hydrogen. 
The sample showed no unusual results. 

CONCLUSIONS : Our experiment measured CNF particles with better 

sensitivity than that of (1) and (2). Our cell configuration was not iden- 
tical to those of (1) or (2) since our cathode formed a thin window to 
allow the exiting of energetic charged particles. Our results show that no 
excess heat and no nuclear fusion products were detected for any of the 
samples tested. The partial substitution of H 2 0 for D 2 0 did not 
produce, nuclear fusion products. Pre-annealing of the Pd cathode had 
no effect. The artificial introduction of 6 Li into the Pd cathode by either 
diffusion or ion implantation had no effect. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS : We wish to acknowledge the very valuable 
assistance of R. L. Garwin, P. Saunders, W. Kahn, F. Albert, J. Angilello, 
S. Burks, G. Dibello, W. Dimaria, E. Folsom, C. R. Guarnieri, H. 
Gertling, R. Gray, N. Penebre, S. Shivashankar, and C. R. Guarnieri. 







(D 2 0/H 2 0) 

of Run 

Fusion Rate 
(Fusions/cm 3 sec) 

F. & P. (Ref. 1) Neutrons 

# 1 



F. & P. (Ref. 1) Observed 

Heat# 1 


Jones et al. (Ref. 2) Neutrons # 2 



Particles detected 
( /cm 3 sec) 

25 pim Pd + 1.7 pim Au 
Prebaked: 900C/1 hour/10' 
Pure a-Pd after testing 

# 1 

“ 6 Tor# 100/0) 


< 0.0038 

25 pim Pd + 6.5 /mi Au 
Pure #-Pd after 24 hours 

# l Ji 


< 0.0052 

0.5 mm Pd + 6.3 pin i Au 
Pure /?- Pd after 24 hours 

# 3 



< 0.00092 

25 //m Pd + 6.5 pim Au 

# 3 



< 0.0051 

25 pim Pd + 6.5 pim Au 
Pure H 2 0 Electrolyte 




< 0.0054 

25 pim Pd + 6.3 pim Au 
Diffused with 6 Li 

# 3 



< 0.0066 

25 pin i Pd + 1.7 pim Au 
Ion Implanted with 6 Li 

# 3 



< 0.0051 


Elec. # 1 = 100 % D 2 0 with 0.1 molar LiOD. (really 99.5% D ? 0) 

Elec. # 2 = Electrolyte based on components of Earth's Mantle + Vol- 

cano Lava (see Ref. 2). 

Elec. # 3 = 90 % D 2 0 + 10 % H 2 0 with 0.1 molar LiOD. 

Elec. # 4 = 100 % H 2 0 with 0.1 molar LiOD. 


Pd foils were backed with Au films on the side away from electrolyte to 
prevent outdiffusion of hydrogen from the cathode (see text). Table 1 
indicates the thickness of the sputter deposited dense Au films. 

Calculation of detection limit: 

In all cases the total signal counts (detected particles from 1 - 3 MeV) 
were within 3 a of the background counts (taken with the cell current off), 
assuming Poisson statistics. The quoted particle upper - limit of detection 
is based on two a of the Signal counts, without background removed, 
divided by the cathode volume. 


(1) M. Fleischmann and S. Pons, J. Electroanal. Chem., vol. 261, 301 

(2) S. E. Jones, E. P. Palmer, J. B. Czirr, D. L. Decker, G. L. Jensen, J. 
M. Thome and S. F. Taylor, Nature, vol. 338, 737 (1989). 

(3) F. Paneth and K. Peters, Die Naturwissenschaften, vol. 23, 956 (1926); 
retracted in : ibid, vol. 24, 379 (1927). 

(4) J. F. Ziegler and J. P. F. Sellschop, Nucl. Instr. and Meth., vol. 191, 
419 (1981). 

(5) B. Dandapani and M. Fleischmann, J. Electroanal. Chem., vol. 39, 
323 (1972). 

(6) Ref. (1) states their detected neutrons were three times background. 
M. Fleischmann has said their neutron signal after 50 hours contained 
135 counts above background (private communication). 



Figure 1 

Cross-section of the teflon electrolytic cell. The anode was always Pt, 
about 2 cm wide and 4 cm long. A 7cm 2 conical hole in the side of the 
cell led to the 2cm 2 cathode. The anode - cathode spacing was adjustable, 
but all tests reported here were at a spacing of 2 cm. The cathode was 
Pd foil of various thicknesses. About 2 mm behind the cathode was a 
surface barrier detector to measure energetic charged particles. The de- 
tector had a background for charged particles with energies of 1 - 3 MeV 
of about 5 counts / day (mostly due to cosmic rays). 

Figure 2 

Charged particle spectrum for a thin Pd cathode (25 /j.m thick, backed 
with 1.76 fxm Au) during 205 hours of charging. Within statistics, all the 
counts are due to cosmic ray neutrons interacting with the silicon detec- 
tor, see Ref. (4). The background of the detector was determined by 
making no experimental changes except for turning off the cell current. 
This background, taken over 82 hours, was virtually identical to the 
spectrum with the cell -operating. The upper limit for the fusion rate for 
this experiment was .0038 fusions/cm 2 sec. 

Figure 3 

X-ray diffraction spectrum from the 0.5 mm thick Pd cathode, backed 
by 6.3 fim Au. The peaks correspond to a lattice parameter of 4.03 A, 
only slightly larger than the published value for Pd monohydride, 4.02 
A. There is no evidence of the original cc - Pd metal in the spectrum. 
This leads us to conclude that complete hydrogenation of the cathode 
was obtained within the limits of the applied voltage and current density. 



Particle Spectrometry from Cell 




3000 - 

2900 - 



1 10 


90 ioo 




J < 

fty. /7 






[ rtcr; ^ T 







On the observation of charged particle# In cold fusion. 

Bo U R Sundqvist, Per HAkansson and Allan Hedin 

Div of Ion Physics, Dept of Radiation Sciences, Uppsala University 

Box 535, S-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden 

Romului V Bueur 

Dept of Chemistry, Uppsala University 
Box 531, S-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden 

Borje Johansson and Roger WSppling 
Dept of Physics, Uppsala University 
Box 530, S-751 21 Uppsala, Sweden 



< 3 * 


With the aim to confirm or reject the recent claim of observation of 
cold d-d fusion, an experimental effort has been made to iTy to observe 
MeV protons which should be emitted as a result of d-d fusion. Pd 
foils, thin enough to allow all protons produced to escape the foil, 
were electrolytically charged with deuterium. A Si(SB) detector was 
placed dose to the Pd foil during charging in order to detect any 
protons emitted. The deuterium content was measured to be the 
expected 0.7 D per Pd. Monte Carlo simulations were made to 
estimate the detection efficiency of 3.02 MeV protons produced in the 
Pd foil. 

The background in the experiment was so low that fusion rates 
considerably lower than those reported on by Jones et al could be 
detected. A number of experiments have been performed where the 
charging conditions were varied, In spite of that and the good 
sensitivity of the experiment no evidence for cold fusion has been 

Search for /i~ Catalyzed d — d Fusion in PdDg * 

J.H. Brewer, G. Jones, M.M. Pavan, U. Narger, M.E. Hayden, J.L. Booth, and W.N. Hardy - 
Dept, of Physics, Univ. of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C., Canada VST 2A6; D. Armstrong 
- TRTUMF, 4004 Wes brook Mall, Vancouver , B.C., Canada V6T 2A3; R. Helmer - Dept, of 
Physics, Simon Fraser Univ., Burnaby, B.C., Canada; and D.R. Harsh man - AT&T Bell Labs, 
Murray Hill, NJ. 

Jones ti recently claimed to have observed neutrons from possible d — d fusion reactions 

in Pd or Ti charged with D using simple electrochemical cells. Among other things, this led to 
the proposition^ that negative cosmic ray muons stopping in PdD r samples could produce such 
neutrons via muon catalyzed fusion (pCF) of dpd mesomolecular ions: dpd —> 3 He + n + /i, a 
process known to occur in pure Do but never observed in condensed matter due to the enhanced 
probability of p~ capture on heavier elements and the rapid transfer of the p~ from p~d to 
heavier nuclei once formed. In order to test this proposition, we have made a preliminary study 
of the time distributions of electrons and neutrons relative to the time of arrival of stopped p~ 
from a muon channel (M20B) at an accelerator (TRJIJMF), thus increasing the hypothetical fiCF 
rate by a factor of more than 10 7 relative to stopping cosmic ray muons. We stopped 1.5 to 2.S 
/s in 15 g ; 2.3 x 2.0 x 0.25 cm 3 samples of 99.9% pure Pd in thin electrochemical cells 
and detected electrons and neutrons in a NE213-type BC501 liquid scintillator “N” counter with 
pulse shape discrimination. A thin NE102 plastic scintillator “E” between the target and the 
~N” counter was used in coincidence with the electron trigger and as a veto for neutrons. Similar 
plastic scintillators were used to generate the p~ stop trigger. A fast time digitizer was used to 
measure the time interval between a p~ stop and an e - or n event; these time intervals were 
histogrammed to form the above-mentioned time spectra. All Pd samples were initially degassed 
in vacuum at high temperature. One was kept free of H or D and used as a control. The second 
was charged for 5 days in a O.lM solution of LiOD in D^O so that the stoichiometry (measured 
by weight change) was PdDo.ssp) at the start of the run. The third was charged for 5 days in a 
O.lM solution of LiOH in H^O to make PdHo.s 7 (i)- During the run the samples were maintained 
in the same solutions with electrolysis currents of 10 mA at voltages of 2.69 V (PdD) and 2.36 V 
(PdH) to prevent loss of D or H. The uncharged Pd was held in the same cel] at S.7 mA and 
2.67 V during the run to preserve identical systematics. Comparing results for Pd, PdD 0 ss(i) and 
PdHo we find no evidence for any efficient pCF in PdD*, which effectively negates the origi- 
nal hypothesis; we have not ruled out the possibility of more subtle effects with a small minority 
of the stopped muons, but the data are consistent with a complete absence of any pCF in PdD x . 
It is important to note that almost every fi~ captured by Pd liberates one or more neutrons in 
the nuclear capture process + p —■ > nx^); this produces a significant background of neutrons 
associated with stopping muons. It is not inconceivable that such p— capture neutrons are gen- 
erated in detectable numbers by cosmic ray muons, but such events have nothing whatsoever to 
do with fusion. 

* Work supported by NRC and NSERC. 

^ ^ S.E. Jones, E.P. Palmer, J.B. Czir, D.L. Decker, G-L. Jensen, S.F. Taylor and J. Rafelski, 
‘'Observation of Cold Nuclear Fusion In Condensed Matter”, to be published in Nature (19S9). 

^ ^ M.W. Guinan, G.F. Chapline, and R.W. Moir, “Catalysis of Deuterium Fusion in Metal 
Hydrides by Cosmic Ray Muons”, UCRL Preprint 100881, April 7, 1989. 

Abstract for Cold Fusion Workshop, Santa Fe, NM, May 1989. 


J. S. Bullock, IV, and O. L- Powell 
Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant 6 


D. P. Hutchinson 
Oak Ridge National Laboratofy* 

Mania Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., 

Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-8096, United States 


An overall description of the electrochemical processes occurring in cold fusion cells with Palladium cathodes 
is presented. Energy/power deposition distributions, deuterium activity/overvoltage relationships, uniformity 
of current density and symmetry of the cell design, the effect of palladium micro-structure and void/inclusion 
distribution and the possible role of poisons are discussed. Correlation with ongoing experiments are 


Georg e Chambers® and James Eridon 
Naval Research Laboratory 
Washington^ D.C. 20375 

The source ©f heal in the cold fusion experiments of Pons and Fleischmarat has been 
hypothesized to arise from an as yet unidentified nuclear reaction. If this is the case, it must 

involve the emission of massive energetic particles (such as alpha particles), since the traditional 
reaction paths would all produce great amounts of easily detectable neutrons, tritons, and 
gamma rays. With this in mind, an effort has been made to create cold fusion in thin films of 
palladium under low energy bombardment with high currents of deuterium ions in a vacuum 
chamber. The sample is monitored with a silicon surface barrier detector in order to detect any 
massive energetic reaction products. The films are deposited by sputtering onto smooth silicon 
substrates, and consist of approximately 170 A of palladium sandwiched by thin layers of high 
chrome stainless steel. These films are bombarded with deuterium ions at an energy of 
1.5 keV with a current density of about 0.5 mA/cm 2 . The sample temperature is monitored 

during implantation, and is subject to control within a range from about 570 K to 20 K using a 
combination of beam heating and cooling with a cryostat. Full spectra will be presented, 
including background and control experiments, along with an analysis of possible causes of 

both red md spurious counts. 

* NRC Postdoctoral Associate 

Evaluation ©f Cold Fusion Is Single and Cast Poly crystalline Pd* 

D. S. Ginley, M. A. Butler, J. E. Schirber and R. I. Ewing 
Sandia National Laboratories 
Albuquerque, NM 871S5 

Hie potential of electrochemically driven cold fusion has excited the 
tmaglnation of scientists around the world. Preliminary reports have 
indicated that there are enhanced effects in cast versus extruded Pd 
electrodes. To investigate this we have examined a number of Pd electrodes 
including single crystal (20 gm) and cast ingot (40gm). No discemable 
differences in deuterium uptake are observed due to the sample morphology, 
rather it appears that the condition of the surface dominates the uptake 
kinetics. Surfaces etched in hot aqua regia before placement in the 
electrochemical cell show considerably enhanced D uptake. 

The electrodes above as well as poly crystalline Ti rods have been run 
in a 0.1M LiOD/DiO electrochemical cell with Pt counter electrodes for 10 
to 30 days while monitoring temperature, neutron fluence, voltage and 
current at 10 min. intervals. The neutron detector consisted of an array of 
He 3 tubes with a polyethylene moderator and Cd thermal neutron shield. The 
detector is capable of sensing the generation of as few as 5 neutrons/sec. The 
cell volume was carefully controlled and the Pd and Ti electrodes exposed 
only to the electrolyte. No excess neutrons or heat have been observed to 

♦This work performed at Sandia National Laboratories was supported by the 
U. S. Department of Energy under contract #DE-AC04-76DP00789. 

Experiments in Search of Cold-Fusion Processes . S. Gottesfeld, T. E. Springer, 

F. H. Garzon, D. A. Baker, R. E. Anderson, E, M. Leonard, and M. W. Johnson, 
Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, NM 87545 . Since the 
announcement by Utah and Brigham Young Universities that "cold fusion" might 
be occurring in relatively simple electrochemical systems, there has been an intense 
effort at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, as well as at other institutions, to 
verify these results. One collaboration at Los Alamos has involved members of 
the Electronics Research Group, the Advanced Nuclear Technology Group, and the 
Controlled Thermonuclear Research Division. Four electrochemical cells similar to 
those described by the Utah scientists have been constructed and operated for three 
to five weeks under various geometrical and electrical current conditions. A 
number of diagnostic measurements have been performed, including total and 
spectra me trie neutron measurements, high* resolution gamma measurements, and Pd 
electrode resistivity. No evidence has been obtained for production of neutrons or 
2.223-MeV gammas above levels consistent with background. The temperatures of 
three of the cells were monitored, either directly in the cell or by monitoring the 
cooling bath. No evidence for excess heat generation has been obtained. In 
addition to the electrochemical cells, attempts are underway to reproduce the 
Frascati results; the first attempt produced negative results. Further measurements 
of this type are planned and results will be available at the conference. 

Nuclear and thermal effects during 
electrolytic reduction of deuterium at a 

palladium cathode 

D. Gozzi, P.L. Cignini , L. Petrucci, M. Tomellini** and G. De Maria 

Departme nt of Chemistry. Universita' di Roma "La Saoienza” 


S. Frullani, F. Garibaldi, F. Ghio, M. Jodie© and E. Tabet 

E hxsics Laboratory, Istituto Superiors di Sanita’ and sez. Sanita ’ 
LN.F.N. Roma 


C.N.R., Centro Termodinamica Chimica all© Alt© Temperature. 
** Departemeni of Chemistry. Universita' della Basilicata, 

An experiment was carried out in LiOD 0.1 M D 2 O electrolyte 
solution with a three electrodes arrangement . Palladium- a 
parallelepiped of 5 X 6 X 20 mm- was used as cathode. After 150 
hours at a current density of 200 mA / cm 2 a simultaneous 
neutron emission and sharp increase of the electrode temperature 
was observed. The evaluation of the neutron emission was about 
150 times the background level and estimated thermal energy 
release of about 200 J was delivered in about four minutes. A 
predisposed security current cut off device driven by the data 
acquisition system was found to be activated during the event. 
Details concerning the experimental apparatus and procedure 
adopted for the evaluation of the experimental data will be 

Investigation of Fusion Reactions in Ptiladium Using Galvtnostatic, 

Coulometric, lad Membrane Permeation Techniques* 

T. R. Guilinger, M. J, Killy, J. R, Scully, $. 8, Tsao 

T. M, Christensen and W. H. Caaey 

Sandia National Laboratories 
Albuquerque, NM 871 IS 


We describe a variety of electrochemical methods and our results in applying them to investigate 
cold fusion phenomena, Our initial cells used galvanostatic techniques with no reference electrode 

in an attempt to duplicate the particle fluxes (neutron and proton) observed In the University of 

Utah experiments, In these cells we used extruded Pd wire, both as received and after annealing 

at 1050'C in ID' 8 torr vacuum for 32 hours cleaned using anodic/cathodic cycling, in 0.1 M LiOD 
with Pt cage counter electrodes. Using proton and neutron detectors thousands of times more 

sensitive than those described by Utah, we were usable to detect particle fluxes above background 

in any of 5 cells operated up to 35 days at current densities as high m 80 mA/cm*. In agreement 

with the particle detection experiments, periodic sampling and analysis of the electrolyte in the 
cells failed to show tritium above background levels. 

We are also utilizing coulometric and Devanathan-Stachurski electrochemical permeation 

techniques to analyze the loading of Pd with D/H. We determine the D content of Pd electrodes 
quantitative coulometry of a loaded Pd electrode on discharge. Using the Devanathan-Starchurski 
method, we determined the effective charging flux of Pd foils as a function of surface treatment. 
This method allows us to determine the fraction of D atoms from the discharge of D a 0 that enter 
the lattice as a function of applied current density. We can then better estimate which surface 
treatments allow us to fully load a Pd electrode to a Pd:D ratio of 1:1. We show that surface 
treatments such as palladizing, anodic/cathodic cleaning cycles, and flame washing are superior to 
©x situ solvent cleaning in increasing the effective charging flux of Pd foils. 

Search for Cold Fusion Using Pd-P-, Cells and Ti~D Mixtures.* 
John C. Hill, C Stassis, J, Shinar, R, Fulkerts, D. D. Schwcllenbach, D. T. 
Peterson, G Widrig, M. Porter, G J. Benesh, and J. P. Vary, Antes Lab- 
oratory. Iowa State Uj We have searched for cold fusk>R -produced In an 
electrolytic cell with Pd cathode and Pt anode. The electrolyte, was 0.1 molar 
LiOD in 99.8% D 2 0. Experiments using a 2 mm rod of polycrystalline Pd 
and a 4 mm rod of single crystal Pd ran for 10 and 6 days, respectively. The 
cell current was 0.95A. No radiation was detected above background by a BF3 
neutron and Ge -7-x detector. The D 2 loading of the Pd was measured to be 
0.8 D per Pd atom and reached saturation after 4 hours. We also attempted 
to duplicate the work of Scaramuzzl and coworkers 1 on the Ti-D system. 
Both powder and pieces of Ti were used. The material was cycled several 
times between 1100 K and 77 K. No naulron ©mission above background was 
observed. The results of a barrier penetration calculation for I Mike atoms 
will be presented and discussed in light of results of recent experiments. 
"Work supported by DOE 
^Submitted to Euro. Phvs. Lett. 





seur.NG. •• a cmina 
At S’ 1 " R AC *•" 



Q*. ' 



by Scott R. Little, David B. Clifton, John C. Harlan, Noel B. Brinkley, and 
John S. Schindler, AUSTIN COLD FUSION, Austin, TX . 


A variety of experiments cover a range of materials and parameters. Several 
are attempts to duplicate the work of Fleischmann and Pons, including 
large, cast cathodes and high current densities. Gamma emissions from 0.5 
to 7.4 Mev are monitored with a 2x2 Nal multichannel spectrometer. 

Neutrons are counted with a Lil scintillator. Water-flow calorimetry 
provides an absolute measure of heat production with a precision of +/— 10 

To date, one cell with a 1 cm diameter spherical Pd cathode has shown 
indications of slight excess heat production. If this is verified we will 
mi y to keep it running until the total heat energy exceeds the total 
•Integrated input of electrical energy. A complete presentation of all 
experimental conditions and results will be made. Measurement errors will 
be discussed and quantified. 



C. A. Melendres sad L. R. Greenwood 
Material® Science Division/ 

Chemical Technology Division 
Argonne National Laboratory 
Argonne, Illinois 80439 


Results of experiments on the electrolysis of LiOD/DjO solutions using Pd electrodes 
as a function of current density and time will be presented. Neutron and gamma levels 
during cell operation as measured with scintillation detectors were not significantly above 
backgrounds of 0.6 cps and 1.8 cps, respectively. Tritium analysis of the catholyte solu- 
tion during and after electrolysis showed the same concentration as blank samples, i.e., 70 
cpm/ml. Pitfalls associated with the interpretation of cold fusion experiments will be dis- 

A critical analysis of the calorimetry results of Fleischmonn and Pons will be made. We 
note that their measured excess rates of heating are of quite modest magnitude but that the 
large values quoted at 512 mA/cm 2 are projections of highly questionable validity. The total 
heat output was generally less and at best about equal to the energy supplied. We calculate 
the ratio of measured excess heating rate to the equivalent D 3 -O 3 recombination heat to be 
generally less than one. It appears that the data published do not warrant an interpreta- 
tion baaed on nuclear fusion. In the absence of a complete accounting of excess heat from 
chemical and electrochemical sources, (e.g., D 3 -O 3 reaction, Pd deuteride formation, anode 
depolarization, impurities), their conclusion of electrochemically induced nuclear fusion is 
largely a speculation. 

M. A. Prelas , F. P. Boody, W. Gallaher, E. Leal-Quiros, 
David Mencin, and Scott Taylor, "Experiments to 
Produce Coid Fusion In Maxwellian Plasmas", 
Fusion Research Laboratory, Nuclear Engineering 
Prog., University of Missouri-Columbia, 65211 USA — — 
We are exposing samples of palladium, titanium, nickle, 
and tantalum to deuterium ions produced in a mirror 
machine. The ion temperature and current can be var- 
ied by changing the magnetic field strength, microwave 
power, and background deuterium density. We have 
incorporated a wide variety of diagnostics including: a 
BF 3 probe (neutrons), a gold foil (neutrons), a newly 
developed charged particle counter (p,T, He 3 , and 
He 4 ), calorimeter, an ion energy analyzer (D+ density 
and temperature), a residual gas analyzer, a He leak 
detector, a sodium iodide detector with multichannel 
analyzer (gamma ray spectroscopy), and Geiger coun- 
ters (bulk gamma ray detectors). To date we have had 
interesting but non-conclusive results. This paper will 
describe the experimental set-up and provide up to 
date results on this potential method of initiating the 
cold fusion process. 

A. N 

J. SL Morrey* , R. P. Allen, L. L. Burger, R, H. Jones, M. D. Merz, 

K. H. Pool , J. F. Wacker 

Pacific Northwest Laboratory 

We will describe an experiment designed to confirm conclusions reported by 
Fleishmann and Pons. We designed the experiment to simultaneously measure 
possible excess heat and neutron and gamma radiation that could be generated 
during electrolysis of D 2 O and deposition of deuterium in a palladium 
cathode. The aqueous electrolytic cell consists of a Pt anode, D20, 0.1 M 
®LiOD electrolyte, and Pd cathode. Simultaneous measurements are made in a 
nearly identical cell, except the electrolysis is of H 2 O in a 0.1 M 6[_iOH 
electrolyte. The D 2 O and H 2 O cells are connected in series to run with 
identical currents and nearly equal current densities. 

The entire experiment is assembled inside a sensitive neutron counter with a 
13% counting efficiency. The cathodes, cylindrical rods measuring 0.5 cm in 
dia x 5 cm in length, are vacuum/arc melted, annealed and conditioned at low 
electrical currents. Cathodic overpotentials, cirrent, cell voltages, 
temperatures, and heat generation are recorded as a function of time by a 
computerized data logging system. Excess heat ir calculated by considering 
integrated electrical energy input, electrolysis, and enthalpy lost from the 
system by evaporation and through recirculating water from a water bath 
surrounding the electrolytic cell. Conditions, are maintained near 
isothermal. Energy input is calculated from JE(t) I (t)dt, where t is the time 
ranging from the start of conditioning of the Pd electrode to the end of the 

Limits on Emissions from Palladium-D20 Electrolytic Cells # 

J.D. Porter, A. Shihab-Eldin,* J.O. Rasmussen, 

J.M. Nitschke, S.G. Prussin, F.J. Echegaray, and M.A. Stoyer 

University of California, Berkeley, and Lawrence Berkeley Lab 

We are carrying out a series of experiments to attempt to verify the 
recent claimed observations of cold fusion. Our first experiments 
used a simple undivided electrochemical cell with an outer Pt helical 
wire electrode concentric with a 1.9440 g Pd inner tightly -wound 
coil electrode of 0.0100" dia. wire. The electrolyte was 1.0 M 
LiOD in D 2 0 (99.9%). During the experiment the current was main- 
tained between .250 A and 1.25 A. The cell was placed within a 
shielded enclosure filled with water and paraffin and equipped with 
an intrinsic Ge detector to monitor the 2224 keV neutron proton 
capture photons. The cell was run in a charging mode for two 
weeks, followed by a purging mode at reversed current for one 
week. From these measurements we are able to set an upper limit 
for the average D-D fusion neutron rate of < 1 x 10' 22 per DD s’ 1 . 
The deuterium content was titrated to be - 0.62 D/Pd. 

In a new experiment two vacuum-cast Pd disks are the cathodes in 
"twin" cells, one with H 2 0, the other with D 2 0. The two cells are 
shuttled every 24 hours between two similar detector setups, 
equipped with intrinsic Ge X-ray and y-ray detectors, liquid scintil- 
lator and 3 He neutron detectors. Another experiment under way is 
designed to measure the production of charged particles, using a 
Si(Au) detector. The cell is of a simple "chimney" design with a 
0.003" Pd electrode foil. Results from these experiments will be 
reported at the woikshop. 

* On leave from Kuwait Institute for Scientific Research, Kuwait. 

# Supported by U.S.D.O.E. under Contract DE-AC03-76SF00098. 


Charles D. Scott, Elias Greenbaum, Gordon E. Michaels, John E. 
Mrochek, Eugene Newman, Milica Petek, and Timothy C. Scott 

Oak Ridge National Laboratory* 

Oak Ridge, Tennessee 


Preliminary tests have been made with an electrolytic cell 
utilizing 0.15 N LiOD in D 2 0 as the electrolyte and a palladium 
cathode surrounded by a wire-wound platinum anode operating at a 
cathode current density of 100 mA/cm . The cathodes was freshly 
cast into a cold mold under argon and then swaged to a nominal 
diameter of 3-mm or 6-mm with 8 1/2- to 9-cm of active length in 
the electrolyte. The electrolyte temperature was controlled and 
heat was removed by flowing water in a cooling jacket, and the 
cell was insulated with 2 in. of fiber glass or foam insulation. 
Cooling water and electrolyte temperatures were measured by 
thermocouples, and neutron and gamma-ray spectra were measured 
and recorded. The electrolyte was periodically monitored and 
replenished and the tritium content was determined. 

Tests up to 2 weeks in duration were made with no 
unaccountable heat generation. Neutron and gamma-ray count rates 
will be presented and discussed. 

Attempts to Understand and Reproduce Cold Fusion* 


E. K. Storms and C. Talcott 
Los Alamos National Laboratory 
Materials and Technology Division 

The assumption will be made that some fusion can occur within a metal lattice if the 
conditions are right. However, in order to verify the claims of Pons and Fleischmann, 
three questions must be answered. First, what are the conditions that exist within the 
Pd electrode when fusion occurs; second, is excess energy actually produced in the cell; 
and, third, what is the source of this energy? An experimental approach will be de- 
scribed that can answer each of these questions. 

In order for there to be a possibility of fusion, the deuterium content of the Pd lat- 
tice must approach a D/Pd ratio of unity. Such a high deuterium content can not be 
achieved in palladium unless the surface is poisoned. Without a surface poison, a cell 
can be electrolyzed forever without the deuterium content rising above a D/Pd ratio of 
0.67 at latm and 25 °C. Unless the D/Pd ratio is known to be near 1.0, failure to see heat 
can not be considered a refutation of the Pons-Fleischmartn claim. Methods to achieve 
a suitable D/Pd ratio and its measurement will be described. 

Once a proper electrode is available, all energy entering and leaving the cell must 
be measured. A cell will be described that allows the gasses, heat and electrical energy, 
and emitted radiation to be measured. Preliminary results will be described. 

A proper study of the nuclear reaction is difficult to do using an electrolytic cell be- 
cause of the difficulty in detecting possible reaction products such as 3 He, 4 He and 
weak radiation. Therefore, a cell has been constructed using plasma loading of Pd di- 
rectly from the gas phase. This cell wall be used to study the nuclear reaction if fusion 
can be produced without an electrolyte and it will be used to study the d-d, d-p and d-t 



EL W. Randolph, H. R. Tilley, J. E. Payne, L. A Refalo, and G. E. Reeves 

Wesnnghouse Savannah River Company 
Savannah River Site 
Aiken, SC 29808 




An experimental investigation of cold fusion is in progress at the Savannah River Site. 
Precise measurements are being made of energy balance, mass balance, gamma radiation, 
neutron radiation and tritium, and helium generation. An argon purged D 2 O electrolysis cell 
is mounted inside a dry calorimeter which measures heat output with an accuracy of ±0,2% 
at 10 watts thermal Constant-flow argon sweep gas is dried for water measurement and 
analyzed by an online quadrapole mass spectrometer to measure off gas species and 
amounts. Electrolysis power is measured at 10-second intervals, integrated, and compared 
with the sum of calorimeter heat, electrolytic product heat of formation, evaporation heat, 
and argon heating. Gamma radiation is measured by (high sensitivity) sodium iodide 

; the cell and 

detectors at the cell and 6 meters away for background. Additional gamma monitoring at 
the cell is done by a high-resolution intrinsic germanium detector. Neutron measurements 
at the cell and 6 meters away are done by moderated helium through detectors. All 
measurement devices are calibrated against NIST traceable standards. Details of the 
experimental arrangement and results to date will be discussed. 

The information contained in this abstract was developed during the course of work under 
Contract No. DE-AC09-76SR00001 (now Contract No. DE-AC09-88SR18035) with the 
U. S. Department of Energy. 

Neutron and Thermal Measurements 
of a Solid State Palladium Cell 

P. A. Seeger, T. N. Claytor, R. K. Rohwer 
W. R. Doty 

Los Alamos National Laboratory 

A unique solid state "cold fusion" cell was constructed to test the idea of non 
equilibrium or "heavy electron" aided fusion. The concept behind this design 
was to inject electrons into deuterium loaded palladium so that the electron 
concentration in the metal would be in a non-equilibrium state for a short 
time. A time correlated neutron detector was then used to detect any anomalous 
neutrons produced during or shortly after the electrical excitation. Cells 
were constructed from alternating layers of palladium and silicon powder 
pressed into a ceramic form and exposed to deuterium gas at 110 psia resulting 
in a D/M ratio of 0.7. Cells with deuterium and cells with hydrogen or vacuum 
were used in the experiments. One deuterium cell showed anomalous heating, for 
a short time, above the rate found for the vacuum cell. No time correlated 
neutron events were observed, although the general level of the neutron 
background was slightly higher with the deuterium cell than with dummy samples. 
We attribute the increased neutron background to noise pickup from the pulsing 
electronics and the modest heating to an electrically driven chemical reaction 
of unknown origin. 


P .TomaS, S.BIagus, M.Bogovae, D.Hodko, M.KrCmar. O.MilJaniC. 
M.VajiO, M.Vukovid 

Ruder Bo&koviC Institute, Zagreb, Yugoslavia 

We searched for nuclear radiation during the electrolysis oi 0.1 M 

LiOH heavy water in a three compartment electrochemical cell. 

Palladium electrodes ol different shapes and ares to volume ratios 

were used. The experiments were perl ox-mod in various 


sorption- desorption regimes. For neutron detection a Li glass 

scintillator <.NE912) of two different diameters <d.l2 and 120 cin> 

was used with the elf icionces ol' and 2% respectively The 


efficiency of the detecting systems was measured by using the' Cf 
neutron source. The 6 LiKEu> crystal was used as a control 
monitor. The experiments were carried out in an underground 
laboratory having 0.2m concrete dock covered by 0 meters of soil. 
The background neutron counting rate for the smaller detector was 
less than 0.01 count/s. The analysis ol several experiment's, which 
lasted from five to eight days, showed that no more than 0.01 
neutron/s per one gram of palladium was produced. 

Measurements of Nuclear Radiation. DueJ&JPd-Deuter ium Interactions 
J, F. Wacker, R.P. Allen, R.L. Brodzinski, J.R. Divine, KH. Pool 
Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratories, PO Box 999, Richland, WA 99352 

Experiments have been run to verify the claim of Pons-Fleischmann that "cold" fusion 
occurs in the Pd-deuterium system. Pd cathodes were electrochemically charged with deuterium 
from a 0.1M LiOD electrolyte. The Pd was 99.9% pure and consisted of 3 to 5 mm wide strips cut 
from 25 by 25 mm wide by 1 mm thick foil piece. A Pt lead was spot-welded onto each Pd strip. Pt 
wire (0.68mm diameter) was used as the anode in most experiments. The LiOD solution was 
made by dissolving either 7 Li metal or 6 Li20 in 99.8% D 2 O. Cells were run at constant current, 
with current densities on the Pd ranging from 16 to 320 mA/cm 2 ; both cell voltages and currents 
were periodically measured, however, no temperature measurements were made. In one 
experimental setup, an electrochemical cell was placed inside a high sensitivity neutron counter 
and neutron counts were taken at 10 min intervals. In addition, temporal multiplicity events, 
characteristic of bursts postulated to be produced by muon catalysis, were measured by connecting 
the output of the neutron counter to a multiplicity counter. In a second setup, a cell was placed 
inside a germanium gamma-ray spectrometer to measure Pd x-rays generated by high energy 
fusion products (e.g., protons) and secondary gammas produced by (n,y) reactions on Cd foil 
placed around the electrolysis cell. Gamma-ray spectra were collected over 1 to 2 day intervals. 

Approximately 10 experiments have been run to date, with the longest continuous charging 
time being 20 days. No positive results have been observed; upper limits to the D-D fusion reaction 
rate are -2xl0 21 and -3xl0 16 fusions/sec per D-D pair for neutron and x-ray measurements, 
respectively. Experiments are continuing and plans have been made to analyze the abundance 
and isotopic composition of helium in our Pd electrodes. 


IT Wang* YF Lis* m Qin, RS Zheng, ZN an, SL Bao, 

EL m t m Pu» IH Zhou, VJ Zhou, Tlf Wans, YH WU, 

va lot* » #nd cc wu 

M~1bc University, Beijing 100871 PRC 

A tet ttdisctpS inary research group was set up at the 
beginning of April. IS electrolytic cells with different 
condl Home fire tested. The cathode aaterialg are Pd rods, foils, 
and ter® in different sizes, and Ti rods, with or without 
pTetreataent . Both high voltage-low current and low vost&ge-high 
current' MBdes **re ^zenined. 4 cells filled with light water were 
used m cell trot . Electrolyses were Usually lasted sore than 100 
hours |« ft&at ruas. The cells were detected with BF3 counters, 
liquid afclntlilation counters, Nal (TI ) scintillation counters 
and lliersfitteri. Tri tins activities were also »e®sored in few 
eases . A BF8 counting systea was placed nearby to ®oni tor the 
natural background. Following the cl alas of Italian Prascad i 
re* earth ,gr@up 8 Several runs on the systes on Ti powder absorbing 
€i«t@rlaa Its of 30 at®, at 94 I have also been Bade. However , 
lo eeifeitttiOft ftsi biin drawn so far. 

The rates of generation and accumulation of tritiun in gas 
art i£fuld phases were measured . Th« T/D *epar«tiors factor 
Matured are 2.6 for Pd sheet electrode with bright surface and 
2*0 tot eieeirod* of Pi blech. 




Cold Fmion “ Ttm Emt Mechanism 
AH F. AbuT&ha, Reston, VA 


A fundamentals and classically explainable, mechanism of heat 
generation was neglected In the recently reported experiments of 
Professors Martin Fleisehmann and Stanley Pons. This Is the release of 
stored strain energy which can be discharged during the propagation of 
Jjactofes In the palladium bulk. Hydrogen and deuterium are known to 
Induce and propagate cracks In metals and alloys, including Pd. The 
maximum amount of heat possible from a typical Pd electrode is shown 
to be of the order of magnitude of the reported excess heat content. 


Experiments by Stanley Pons and Martin Fleisehmann (1) 
demonstrated that excess heat can be generated from Pd-D cells at room 
temperature. Some centers in the United States and abroad, were able to 
reproduce the excess heat, while other centers were not. While the heat 
generation appears to be real, the proposed fusion reaction Is not bo 
clear. Neutron counts, tritium, helium, and other fusion by-products were 
variable, Inconsistent with theory, or non-existent. Anyway, the mechanism 
responsible for the heat generation has not yet been Identified. 

This matter may be resolved by classical means, recognizing that 
the "system" used In the Pons-Flelschmann experiments was not a truly 
closed system. Interaction with the external environment was hidden, 
albeit accidentally; and this was the source of the paradox. The 


G. R. Longhurst and T. J. Dolan, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, 
EG&G Idaho, Inc. 

In recently publicized results of cold fusion experiments exceptionally 
high heating was reported that was attributed to nuclear reactions. To 
investigate mechanisms that may contribute to that observation, a series 
of experiments similar to ones conducted at the University of Utah was 
performed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Ordinary 
water, heavy water, and a mixture of the two were used in the INEL 
experiments. Cathodes used included a 51 -Aim Pd foil and 1-mm diameter 
Pd rods in various configurations. Energy balances in these experiments 
revealed that although some of the required voltage for cell operation is 
due to back-emf associated with reversible processes, irreversibilities 
associated with dissipation in the electrolyte are not negligible. 
Phenomena observed include activation energy and concentration 
polarization effects, the electrical resistivity of the electrolyte, and 
the sensitivity of that resistivity to temperature. Water addition 
requirements imply that effectively none of the gases produced in 
electrolysis recombine inside the test cell. Comparison of the 
manifestations of these effects in the INEL experiments with available 
excess heat data from the University of Utah experiments shows that the 
irreversibilities present are adequate to explain the observation of 
excess heating reported. 

Work supported in part by U.S. Department of Energy, Director of 

Energy Research, Office of Fusion Energy under DOE Contract No. 



Gary M. Sandquist 
Vem C. Rogers 

Rogers and Associates Engineering Corporation 
P.O. Box 330 
Salt Lake City, Utah 841 10 
Telephone: (810) 263-1600 

Although major controversy still remains as to the source of the majority of the thermal 
energy reported from cold fusion experiments, considerable evidence does exist that low-level 
hydrogen isotope fusion reactions are occurring based upon neutron and gamma ray emission 
observations. This paper will investigate those potential methodologies which might enhance 
these low fusion reaction rates and increase specific thermal energy output. 

The principal component of primary interest in an electrolytic cold fusion cell is the cathode 
where the isotopic hydrogen is loaded via electrolysis of the electrolyte into the electrode for 
volumetric diffusion into the lattice. Cathode surface characteristics such a purity and lattice cell 
orientation are known to be essential for maximum hydrogen loading. The geometrical size and 
configuration of the cathode and the crystalline grain size and conditioning are important. Other 
cathode metals (besides palladium) and their alloys may be of interest. The composition of the 
electrolyte and possibly pulsed electrolysis as well as very high pressure and temperature (above 
the critical point for the electrolyte) operation may also enhance energy output 


G. L. Powell, and J. S. Bullock, IV 
Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant 8 


D. P. Hutchinson 
Oak Ridge National Laboratory* 

Martin Marietta Energy Systems, Inc., 

Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-3096, United States 


Techniques have been established to prepare palladium sped mens for cold fusion experiments using an 
ultra-high-vacuura, all-metal, high-temperature flimace to melt palladium metal in high purity alumina molds 
having a test tube shape. To date 6-mm and 15-mm cylinders have been fabricated, the latter being used 
to fabricate a sphere 12,5-mra in diameter. Techniques and facilities used for palladium-hydrogen isotope 
prcssure-volume-temperature measurements’ -1 have been used to anneal these palladium specimens after 
machining and, in some cases, to charge these specimens with deuterium to PdD^, stoichiometry prior to 
their use in electrochemical celts. The modeling of palladium-hydrogen isotope pressure- composition- 
temperature curves is described wherein existing data 5,4 is used to derive models that accurately describe the 
existing data and that extrapolate to high compositions. 


1. Lssser R. and Powell G. L., Phys. Rev. B J4, 578 (1986). 

2 . Lasser R. and Powell G. L, in ’Hydrogen in Disordered and Amorphous Solids’, edited by G. Bambakis 
and R. G Bowman, Plenum, New York, 387 (1986). 

3. Lasser R. and Powell G. L., J. Less-Common Met HQ< 387 (1987). 

4. Lasser R. and Powell G. L, Fusion Technology, !£, 695 (1988). 

5. Lasser, R., Meuffcls, P. and Fecnstra, R., ’Databank der Leslichkeiten der Wassemoffisotopc Protium 
(H), Deuterium (D), und Tritium (T) in den Metallen V, Nb, Ta, Pd und den Lcgierungcn Vj^Nb^ 
VuTa* Nbj^Mo* Pdi^Ag*’, Kernforschungsanlage, Jolich, J til-2183. 1988. 

6 . Powell, G. L. and Lssser, R., ’Solubility of Hydrogen, Deuterium, and Tritium in Palladium Metal, Oak 
Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Y-2395 . (1988) 

Properties of Heavy Water and Hydrogen Isotopes 
Relative to Cold Fusion 


Robert H. Sherman (MST-3), Robert M. Abernathey (CLS-I) 
and Roland A. Ja''bert (MST-3) 

University of California 
Los Alamos National Laboratory 
P.0. Box 1663 

Los Alamos, New Mexico 87 6L5 

Heavy water (D 2 0) is a substance not -normally used by most chemists 
and physicists. Since it is very hygroscopic, D 2 0 must be handled very 
carefully if high pu r ity is to be maintained. Data will be presented 
shewing the rate of exchange with normal water. Properties of D 2 0 will be 
presented as we 1 ! as a discussion of analytical techniques. Also presented 
will be information on H-D-T mixtures, isotopic equilibria, analytical 
techniques, etc. Radiological properties of tritium will be discussed. 


R. Frahm* , G. Meitzner 2 , R. Greegor^ and F. Lytle^ 

1. HASYLAB at DESY, Hamburg, West Germany 

2. Exxon Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ 08801 

3. The Boeing Co., Seattle, WA 98124 

We have conducted the Fleischmann and Pons (1) experiment in an x-ray transparent 
cell with a Pt anode and a 12.5 um thick x 3 cm Pd cathode in 0.1 N Li OH electro! .yte. 
Rapid scans (1 min.) of the Pd K-edge EXAFS were obtained during electrolysis on the 
ROMO 1 beam line at HASYLAB. The intent of the experiment was to determine the effect 
of electrochemical overvoltage on the Pd lattice in H 2 0 and D 2 0. The well-known 
progressive expansion of the Pd lattice (2) during charging with H or D is graphically 
evident in the overplots of the EXAFS shown in Fig. 1. Our estimate of the final 
H content of the Pd was PdH^ where x = 0.77 from the lattice constant (2) and x = 0.80 
by weight. PdD Q 72 was determined from the lattice constant (2) only because the 
sample lost weight so quickly on the balance pan that it was impossible to get an 
accurate weight. Electrolytic charging of H and D was done by applying 3 V at 

2 p 

7 ma/an . Increasing the voltage progressively to 8 V and 100 ma/cm did not change 
the lattice parameter although the lattice disorder decreased at the higher voltages. 
This can be interpreted as a stiffening of the lattice. Actual overvoltages at the 
Pd electrode were estimated by shutting off the cell and measuring the back emf, 
e. g., 0.7 V at 8 V applied. 

Research supported in part by ONR for Greegor and Lytle. 

1. M. Fleischmann and S. Pons, J. Electroanalyt. Chem. 261 , 301 (1989). 

2. J. Schirber and B. Morosin, Phys. Rev. B12 , 117 (1975). 

Fig. 1. Overplots of Pd EXAFS 
during electrolysis of D 2 0. 





On the Determination of Fusion Rates of 
Light Nuclei Imbedded in Solids* 

D. A. Baker 

Los Alamos National Laboratory 
Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 

The suggestion of the possibility of measurable fusion rates of deuterium and/or other 
light nuclei in a lattice of a material such as palladium and titanium has dramatically 
pointed out an area in fusion physics that needs further exploration; a credible means 
is needed for predicting fusion rates when fusible nuclei are packed at high density in 
solid-state materials. This current lack of understanding stems from a past lack of 
motivation for studying non-catalyzed cold fusion, from the difficulties in solving the 
relevant quantum mechanical many body problem, as well as from the modern trend of 
specialization of scientists since the questions of cold fusion cut across several disciplines- 
particularly condensed matter physics, nuclear physics, chemistry, and materials science. 
An important goal is the obtaining of quantitative values for the quantum mechanical 
tunneling probabilities for fusion reactions, which are strong functions of the spacing 
of the nuclei and the electronic screening of their coulomb fields the condensed matter 

The purpose of this paper is to assist in the solution of the problems at hand by 
(1) summarizing the status of some methods which can be used to attack the problem 
of obtaining theoretical predictions of nuclear fusion rates when the relevant nuclei are 
located in solid lattices, (2) discussing some present and possible future experiments which 
have the potential of obtaining the values of the parameters controlling such fusion rates. 

We collect and delineate the fundamental assumptions and limitations associated 
with current related theoretical calculational techniques which may be used, in conjunction 
with experiments, for any future studies whose goal is the quantitative determination of 
the nuclear fusion rates of light nuclei imbedded in matter other than hot plasma. 

Design Consideration For Cold Nuclear Fusion 
Palladium Electrodes as Suggested by the Bush - Eagiefos 
Theory for the Explanation of Cold Nuclear Fusion 


Robert D. Eagleton * 

Robot T. Bush 


Ffaysici Department 
3801 west Temple Avenue 
Pomona, California 91768 

ABSTRACT: According to our theoretical model one of the essential elements for the occurrence 
of COLD NUCLEAR FUSION within palladium Is the formation of sufficiently large deuteron 
globules within the octahedral lattice sites. There are several factors which affect the size, density, 
and rate of this deuteron globule formation. These factors are as follows: (1) Direction and 
magnitude of the electric field relative to crystalline lattice structure at the electrode surface and also 
within the interior, (2) the effect of diffusion barriers at all upstream palladium surfaces that are not 
immersed in the electrolyte and which are not exposal to a sufficiently large electric field, (3) local 
crystalline temperature excursions that are associated with the fusion events, and (4) the various 
deuterium diffusion mechanisms within die crystal which are associated with thermal gradients, 
deuterium concentration gradients, and externally generated potential field gradients that can 
enhance interstitial quantum mechanical tunneling along the direction of the associated internal 
electric field. 

Nuclear Fusion in Host Lattic es Discussed by the Mo de] of a 
Nondegenera te Positive Hydrogen Isotope Ion Gas 

H. Hora* ' * , 0. H. Miiey c , L . Cicchitelli • , A . Scharraann b , 
and W. Scheid b 

a ) Department of Theoretical Physics, University of New 
South Wales, Kensington 2033 , Australia 

b) Fachbereieh Physik, Justus-Liebig-University, 6300 
Giessen , Germany (Fed.) 

c) Fusion Studies Lab., University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 
61801, USA 

The reported results of the cold nuclear fusion in 
electrolytic cells with palladium and similar cathodes is 
explained by a model of the states of electrons and ions of 
the hydrogen isotopes in the host lattice using the 
following concepts: the electrons are more locally bound to 
states of unfilled shells with stronger energetic levelB 
while the positive ions consist in a nearly ideal non- 
degenerate gas of plasma of very high density but relatively 
low temperature. Arguments for this model are the quantum 
theory of compressibility, including the electrostatic atom 
model, and measured electric conductivities. Such a model 
is of basic interest independently of whether or not fusion 
reactions are produced. It is based - contrary to the very 
numerous chemistry papers about hydrogen incorporation - on 
basic sol id state and plasma physics concepts. The fact 
that disappointingly low levels of fusion energy released 
have been reported in the measurements (other than the 
unexplained heat producing reaction) iB diBcuBsed and 
conditions that may permit a drastic increase of energy 
production (up to a level of about a kW per liter) at other 
temperatures as long as the conditions of the host lattice 
or liquid are maintained. Fusion reactions then occur in a 
fashion analogous to the volume ignition model for IGF, and 
Bhould provide a modest bootstrapping effect. Even if this 
is very difficult to achieve, some increase in reaction rate 
would be realised. However, only small scale energy 
generation can be expected, on the scale of solar energy 
densities compared with more concentrated power production 
from other fusion concepts . 

Equilibrium Atomic Structure of Hydrogen In Ti Lattice: 
Pneudopotential Density-Functional Total-Energy Approach 

M. H. K&ng md J. W. Wilkins 

tions based on a local-density approximation for density functional theory. 
The 8 and d valence-electron wavefunctions in this system are expanded 

Limits of Chemical Effects on Cold Fusion 

J. W. Mintmire, B. I. Dunlap, D. W. Brenner, R. C. Mowrey, 

H. D. Ladouceur, P. P. Schmidt, C. T. W'Tiite, and W. E. O’ Grady 

Chemistry Division 
Naval Research Laboratory 
Washington, DC 20375-5000 

Tunneling-induced cold fusion — enhanced by chemical confinement of dcuterons — 
has been widely touted as an explanation of recent reports of the production of 
neutrons and excess heat in electrochemically-generated metal dcuterides. We 
have carried out an extensive set of model calculations to determine the effective 
interaction between dcuterons in palladium, using a broad range of established 
techniques. Embedded-atom method calculations on bulk systems were used to 
study the interaction between two dcuterons in the neighborhood of the octahedral 
and tetrahedral interstitial sites in the palladium lattice. Accurate first-principles 
local-density-functional and ab initio quantum chemical techniques were used to 
study the energetics of dcuterons in model palladium clusters up to PdgDa. At 
scales ranging from 0.1 to 1.0 A no effects are found to suggest that the effective 
interaction between deuterons in palladium is significantly reduced from that of 
gas-phase D 2 . Our results show' that molecular D 2 in palladium should dissuemlc to 
distances of the order of 1.0 A or greater even in lattices with PdD 2 stoichiometry. 
Implications of these results to possible models of cold fusion in metal lattices will 
be discussed. 

Chemical Forces Associated with 
Deuterium Confinement in Palladium 

J. W. Mintmire, B. I. Dunlap, D. W. Brenner, R. C. Mowrey, 

H. D. Ladouceur, P. P. Schmidt, C. T. White, and W. E. O’Grady 

Naval Research Laboratory 
Washington, DC 


First-principles and empirical methods are used to study the effective interac- 
tion between two deuterons in a palladium lattice. No effects are found to suggest 
confinement of deuterons at distances much smaller than the gas-phase Dj separa- 






M.M. Salomaa and P.I. Soininen 

T.ow Temperature Laboratory, Holcinki University of Technology, 

SF-02150 Espoo 15, Finland 

It appears that solid-state effects cannot enhance the cold 
nuclear fusion rate enough in order to account for the experimental 
observations as reported by Jones et al. and by Scaramuzzi et al. 
Therefore, wo coaroh for an alternative explana Lion in the possible 
formation of a quasiatom of deuterons orbiting a metal (Ti, Pd) 
nucleus. The calculations are performed in the framework © f the 
phenomenological quantum-statistical Thomas-Fermi models for the 
screening. This model appears attractive since it docs not require 
(1) the presence of a crystalline metal lattice (the mechanism 
§h<?uld w<?rK lust as well an a powder a a In a metal) nr fii) Invoking 
any heavy electrons from the conduction band to bind to the 
deuterons. (iii) Semiclassical considerations of the deuteron 
orbitals suggest that orientational effects within this model 
may cause significant deviations between different channels of the 
usual d + d fusion reaction rates. Finally, (iv) the exotic quasi- 
atom structure should constitute a metastable state, thus possibly 
explaining the transient, nonequilibrium siUallun suggested for 
cold nuclear fusion catalyzed by ^uasialum fuiiuation, rather than 
by condensed matter. 

The relevance of the present quasiatom model could in principle 
be tested experimentally with help of electron-scattering experiments. 

Hydrogen-Hydrogen Separation and Stability of 
the Palladium-Hydrogen System. A. C . SWITENDICK, 

Sandia National Laboratories Albuquerque, NM 871875 — 
I have calculated the tota I energy of the palladium- 
hydrogen system as a function of lattice constant. 
Occupying the octahedral site gives normally occur i ng 
PdH and the tetrahedral site gives hypothetical PdH, . 
Both curves exhibit a minumum. PdH is more stable 
than PdH, by over 2.65eV relative to palladium metal 
and H, gas. The H-H separation is 2.88A in PdH at a 
5% palladium lattice expansion and 2.30A in PdH, with 
a 13% further expansion of the palladium lattice. 
This is to be compared with a H-H spacing of 0.74A in 
the hydrogen molecule. 

Occupying both sites in the BiF, structure gives an 
increased H-H spacing at a further increase in 
energy . We see no evidence for the violation of the 
rule of a minimum H-H spacing of 2.1A in stable 
hydride systems. 1 

1 A. C. Switendick, Zeits. f fir Physical ische Chemie N. 
F. BdU7, 89-112(1979). 


S.-H. Wei and Alex Zunger 

Solar Energy Research Institute, Golden, CO 80401 
(303) 231-1172 

Both the vibrational wavefunction ^(R) of two hydrogens at a distance R 


[determining the fusion rate A • A |^{R ) j ] and the penetration factor B of 


their mutual barrier depend on the energy surface £(R) for diatomic hydrogen 
in Palladium. Current estimates for A and B have used the free-space form of 
E(R) of an isolated molecule. In an attempt to clarify some of the solid 
state aspects of the problem, we have used the first-principles self- 
consistent total energy method within the local density formalism (as 
implemented by the LAPW method) to predict the stability of various forms of 
hydrogen in fee palladium. We find that: (1) the solution enthalpy of dilute 

octahedral H atom in Pd is negative [ i .e. , stable w.r.t. Pd^ 8 ^ ♦ 1/2 
(2) likewise, octahedral H atom long-range-ordered phases of 111 and 1:0.5 Pd- 
H (in the NaCl and 14^/amd structures ) are also stable (even stabler than the 
gas-phase PdH molecule), but (3) the octahedr ally-centered H 2 molecule is 
unstable with respect to dissociation in the solid in either the (111), (001), 
or the (110) orientation. The basic picture that emerges is that such an Hj 
molecule will spontaneously re-orient along (111) (the lowest energy of the 
three orientations), then separate into two hydrogens, each at a tetrahedral 
interstitial site (lower in energy by 1.88 eV/pair). This separated pair will 
subsequently drop into the yet lower energy octahedral sites (after 
surmounting an -0.2 eV barrier for tetrahedral -to-octahedral displacement). 
Since bringing two isolated hydrogen atoms inside palladium to R*0. 74 A 
costs - 2 eV (it releases - 4.5 eV in free-space), such molecules will not fuse 
under equilibrium condition. 




Cold Nuclear Fusion: 

A Hypothetical Model to Probe an Elusive 


Robert T. Bush * 

Robert D. Bagleton 

Physics Department 
3801 West Temple Avenue 
Pomona, California 91768 

ABSTRACT: A semi -empirical power law, which is based upon a "symmetry force catalyzation" 
of cold nuclear fusion, is presented. While it does not prove that Fleischmann and Pons, or 
others, have observed cold nuclear fusion in metals, it is very suggestive in accounting for the 
power yields of Fleischmann and Pons, and of Jones. Nuclear reaction and "anomalous" yields of 
tritium. He 3, neutrons, and x-rays are accounted for in terms of the time evolution of the number 
of deuterons in a fusion center. Heat production is associated with the reaction of two d’s to give 
He4. The production of heat and all nuclear products is predicted to be "pulsed". Finally, 
additional Hypotheses for the role of the symmetry force in physics are set forth. 


Gary S. Collins, John. W. Norbury, Gerald E. Tripard and James S. Walker, 

Department of Physics, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-2814 

A new mechanism is proposed to explain how d-d fusion reactions might take 
place at electron-volt energies .[1] We examine the spin dependence of the 
tunneling process, and specifically the possibility that the two deuterons form a 0 + 
combined state. It is shown that fusion should then occur principally via an 
electron-conversion process such that the combined d + d state becomes an energy 
level of 4 He, with the excess energy transferred to an atomic or conduction 
electron. There would be two reactions: (1) d+ d+ e" -♦ 4 He(ground state) + e' 
(K= 23.8 MeV), and (2) d+ d+ e* - 4 He(20.1 Me' V state) + eTK= 3.7 MeV). The 
second reaction is followed only by (3) 4 He(20.1 MeV state) -* 3 H(K= 0.08 MeV) + 
2 H(K= 0.23 MeV) since the 20.1 MeV level is below the threshold for neutron 
emission. Assuming the same energy dependence applies here as for internal 
conversion, reactions (1) and (2) will have branching probabilities of 1% and 99%, 
respectively. Consequences of this theory are that cold d + d + e" fusion would lead 
to copious production of tritium, protium and energetic electrons, lesser quantities 
of 4 He and 7-rays, and no neutrons. 

[1] G. S. Collins, J. W. Norbury, G. E. Tripard and J. S. Walker (submitted). 

Coulomb Assisted Cold Fusion , M. Danes, NIST . - Of the two possible 
lowest order Feynman tree graphs , the graph of Fig. 1(a) requires the fusing 
nuclei m 2 and m s to penetrate the Coulomb barrier utilizing only the small 

(A* 1 ) momenta jtf| contained in the wave function $ 0 (t) (thus Furry representa- 
tion propagators required), while in Fig. 1(b) m 2 has already acquired the 
recoil momentum |q| (1-2 fm" 1 ) by Coulomb exchange with recoiling (lattice) 
nucleus m p which eliminates the penetration factor (plane wave propagators 

In both cases iMt) is the momentum space wave function for the (trapped) 
nucleus m 2 ; F(q)f, f(q), and g(q) are Coulomb form factors and \p(p) is the 
(half off-the-mass-shel 1 ) wave function of the final nucleus in the fusion 
channel . The matrix element (b) is about 10 30 times larger than that of the 
usually assumed reaction gr|ph (a), yielding a correspondingly larger fusion 
rate. Within a factor - 10~ 3 , reflecting the uncertainties associated 
primarily with estimating the effect of the unknown trapping wave function 
$ 0 (t) the resulting dd fusion rates are for a fully loaded hydride - IQ" 10 
(sec trap) -1 and for HDO ~ 10 -22 (sec molecule) -1 . The pd rates are > 10 3 
times faster than the dd rates. 

Can Cold Fusion of Deuterium in Palladium 

be Triggered by Muon Catalysis? 

John C. Fisher 
Thomas Paine Associates 
600 Arbol Verde 
Carpinteria, CA 93013 

According to Jones et al. fusion of deuterium occurs 
in palladium at a very low level . This may be muon- 
catalyzed fusion initiated by cosmic ray muons. A question 
arises whether muon-catalyzed fusion may under some 
circumstances be able to trigger much larger amounts of 
additional fusion. Several candidate mechanisms are 
considered. The only possibility appears to be cold 
fusion from implosion of an acoustic wave generated by 
the energy deposited near the ends of decay particle 
tracks. Some implications are discussed. 

Neutrons , Tritium, Heat And Metallurgy In tbs Fliischaann-Porte Effect 


j. O'M. Eoekria, K. Volf, E. R&inthla, 0. Lin, M. Saklaresyk, 

L. Kaba, 0, V®lev, N.J.C. Paekham and J.C. Van 

Surface Eleetroehemiatry Laboratory 
Dspartmant of Chemistry 
Texas A&M University 
Collage Station, TX 77843-3255 

The neutron production at palladium eleotrodes heavily loaded with 
deuterium is rolatftd to the current denalty of deuterium evolution. 

Tritium, produced in the solution aurroundirg auoh electrode*, Jr related 
to the potential production and to tine. 

It la found that heat produced la such more difficult to meaaure and ita 
observation depends upon the preclea metallurgical background of the specimen. 
In tome cases, heat in the order of 10 watts /cc can be measured. 

A a ion is given of the effect of the stress near dislocation* upon 
the internal concentration of D in Pd, The strata increase® the local 
concentration by ordera of magnitude. Edge dislocation* ere the likely local® 
of the reactions producing the effects concerned, Insofar m these are 
occupied by hydrogen, or other impurities , tha electrode* concamed will ba 
inactive . 

Super-pure palladium and electrodes which have baan salted several times 
with attempts to allow H to escape may be the basis of observation of these 

Dynamical Plasma Mechanisms for Enhancement 
of Fusion Rates in Metallic Hydrides and Deuterides . 

M. D. GIRARDEAU. University of Oregon , -There 
exist several mechanisms for dynamical plasma 
enhancement of rates. for fusion reactions such as 
d + d-*t+p and d + d- 3 He + n due to plasma oscillation 
wakes behind the recoifing nuclei: (1) Plasma wake 
potential : this can reach values of order 20 or 30 volts 
in a cylindrical region of radius -lOA around the track ' , 
leading to fluctuation enhancement 2 of fusion rates. (2) 
Stimulated plasmon emission : Sequential fusions in the 
wake might lead to stimulated emission of subsequent 
wake plasmons. Enhanced population of these modes 
could lead to multiplasmon absorption by thermal 
deuterons in the wake region. Absorption of -4 „ 
plasmons would lower the fusion barrier to -0.125A at 
which the fusion rate 3 is -lO^/sec, (3) Mechanism 2 
might act in concert with statistical fluctuations or 
cosmic ray muon catalysis to produce fusion bursts, 
possibly explaining neutron bursts reported by the 
Frascatti group 4 . 

Preliminary estimates of enhancements due to these 
mechanisms will be presented. 

'Z. Vager and D. S. Gemmel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 21, 1352 

9 ? 6 ) - 

%S. E. Koonin, Phys. Rev. Lett, (submitted). 

3 C. J. Horwitz, Phys. Rev. C (submitted). 

4 A. De Ninno et al„ Preprint, Centro Richerche 
Energia Frascatti. 







Prof. L. Carl Jensen 
Assisted by 
Dr. Kay S. Mortensen 

A mechanism of how antineutrons can enter a region of 
confined hydrogen or deuterium and decay into antiprotons is 
given. An annihilation reaction of a proton and antiproton 
releases energy. This starts a series of deuterium fissions that 
increase the probability of annihilation reactions. The gamma 
rays produced lose momentum via radiation pressure vibrations of 
the surrounding confinement lattice. This constitutes a change 
of radiation energy to kinetic energy, exhibited as heating of 
the lattice material. 

The deuterium fusions produce some 2.2 Mev gamma ray 
leakage. The gamma rays in the lattice dissipates energy within 
the lattice. The dissipation continues until the ray is 
lengthened to a wavelength that nearly matches the lattice size 

This is 4.1 A for Palladium and 

and can exit the material, 
corresponds to a 3 Kev x-ray emission, 
applied for. 

Copyrights and patents 



Jaime Keller 

Div. de Ciencias Basicas, F.Q., 

Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico, 

Apartado 70*528, 04510 Mexico, D.F., Mexico. 


In condensed matter boundary conditions the possibility of nuclear reactions 

which could not be allowed in free space, for example 2D + 2D 4He, have 

a finite probability due to the recoil momentum of the lattice making up for 
overall momentum conservation. The theory parallels that of recoiless photo- 
emission in the Moessbauer effect from the point of view of the solid state 
effects. On the other hand the number of allowed final states is much larger^ 
than in the case of the standard free space reactions yielding 3He or 3H, as in 
fact we have a continuum of final states, therefore this reaction will be much 
lore probable if the electronic structure of the solid allows it. It will 
also explain the difference of the observed reaction products when the cathode 
is either changed in chemical nature or in preparation procedure. 

New Cold Nuclear Fusion Theory and Experimental 


Yeong E. Kim 

Purdue Nuclear Theory Group 
Department of Physics, Purdue University 
West Lafayette, Indiana 47907 


A theory 1 of neutron-induced tritium-deuterium fusion at 
room temperatures is developed, based entirely on previously 
measured cross-sections of known nuclear reactions. The cold 
fusion process 2 involves self-sustaining chain reactions: 

(1) n+ 6 2A — A He + T, and (2) T + D —* 4 * He -f n, in Li 
salts dissolved in a D 2 0 j DTO /T 2 0 mixture. The theory pre- 
dicts that the self-sustaining chain reaction, (1) — ► (2), can be 
achieved with and without the use of electrolysis 3,4 . The re- 
cent results of cold deuterium fusion reported by Fleischmann 
and Pons 3 are explained in terms of this process. 1 Theoretical 
fusion-rate estimates, experimental tests of the process, and 
basic designs of cold nuclear fusion reactors 2 for power gener- 
ation, are described. 

1. Y.E. Kim, “Neutron-induced tritium-deuterium fusion in 
metal hydrides”, Purdue Nuclear Theory Group Report 
PNTG-89-4 (April 14, 1989) submitted to Physics Letters 
B; Y.E. Kim, G.S. Chulick, and A. Tubis “Theoretical 
estimates of rates of controlled cold t-d fusion induced by 
neutrons”, in preparation. 

2. Patent application and claims filed on April 25, 1989. 

3. M. Fleischmann and S. Pons, Journal of Elect.roanalytic 
Chemistry 261, 301 (1989). 

4. S.E. Jones, E.P. Palmer, J.B. Czirr, D.L. Decker, G.L. 

Jensen, J.M. Thorne, S.F. Taylor and J. Rafelski, Nature, 

April 1989. 


Vladimir B. Krapchev 
Nonlinear Systems, Inc. 

222 Third St. , Suite 3122 
Cambridge, HA 02142 

May 4, 1989 

The DD reaction is initiated by muon capture or highly energetic 

charged particles. As discussed in a previous paper, it proceeds along 

4 3 

one of the main channel ss 1) D+D -» T+p, T+D -*• He+n, 2) D+D -*■ He+n, 

3 He+D V^He+p. The energetic charged particles are slowed down by the 
atoms in the lattice to the Bohr orbital velocity, which corresponds 
to energies in the 20-80 keV range. The alpha particles can transfer 
momentum to the stationary D nuclei by elastic scattering .These D 
nuclei at energies in the range of 40 keV can fuse with the cold D in 
the lattice and in the absence of losses can result in a chain reaction. 
In practice, the loss is due to DD Rutherford scattering with a cross 
section exceeding 1 barn. It dominates the reaction cross section by 
3 orders of magnitude. The D nuclei in the lattice effectively therma- 
lize the energetic D nuclei. This may explain the extremely low neutron 
and energy output, as observed by Jones. 

The picture changes dramatically in a D-T loaded metal hydride. 

Pd accepts T almost as veil as D. The reaction chain is shown below. 

D + T 4 He(3.5MeV) + n(l4.lMev) 

4 He(80keV) 

energetic D / or \ energetic T 

D(40keV)+T T(60keV)+D 

The DT reaction cross section at 60 kev exceeds 1 barn and compares 
favorably with the Rutherford cross section in this energy range. The 
chances of sustaining a chain reaction in this case are much better. 

An experiment with a DT loaded metal hydride is proposed. The 
loading can be done with gases at high pressures. The reaction can be 
initiated with a beam of fast deuterium nuclei. 

The author is very grateful to Prof . H . Feshbach and Dr . S . Steadman 
for illuminating discussions and critical comments. 


M. Ragheb, and G. H. Mlley 
Department of Nuclear Engineering 
University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 
Urbana, Illinois 618?n 

We discuss the Oppenheimer-Phillips process as a 
possible phenomenon leading to deuteron disintegration 
due to polarization In the Coulomb field of a target 
nucleus. This reaction may be possible in the context of 
electrochemichally compressed deuterons in a Palladium 
cathode. The process is highly exothermic and leads to 
neutron capture from deuterons into the Palladium 
isotopes, as well as between the deuterons themselves. In 
the last case, the equivalent of the proton branch of the D- 
D fusion reaction occurs in preference to the neutam 
branch. The process provides a possible explanation for 
the observed energy release, tritium production and 
neutron suppression in the Fleischmann and Pons 




Influence of Attractive Interaction between Deuterons in Pd on 

Nuclear Fusion 

T. Tajima 3 ), H. lyetomi* 3 ), and S. ichimaru c ) 

(a) Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies 
University of Texas 
Austin, TX 78712 

(b) Materials Science Division 
Argonne National Laboratory 
Argonne, IL 60439 

(c) Department of Physics 
University of Tokyo 
Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113 

April 14, 1989 

It is shown that in a heavily deuterated palladium metal a pair of 
deuterons exhibit attractive interaction at short distance (« 0.1 A - 0.7 A) 
due to strong Coulomb correlations in the ion-sphere model and due to the 
screening action of localized 4d electrons. This mechanism leads to 
enhanced thermonuclear reactions at room temperatures some 50 orders 
of magnitude faster than that in a D£ molecule. Characteristic signatures 
of predicted nuclear reactions are described. 

The Cold Puniem lata of d-d 1b PdDx and tho ipiwchln# 

Satie of to tea (p,n) Production it##eti©n 

Hiroshi Takahashi 
Srookhaven National Laboratory 

The sold fusion rate of d»d in P&Dx deuteride calculated by WKB 
approximation suggested that the value of the electron number piled up 
near the interstitial deutron sultiplied by the effective sang 
of th® electron should be about 5 and 10 for getting the fusion rates 
obtained in the experiments of Jones et al §nd Fleischm&rm et al. 

Th® piling up this number of tlectrong froa * and d conduction bands 
is impeded by the repulsive exchange coulomb interaction. To get a high 
fusion rate, the dynamical collective effect created by the street 
accumulated by the presence of interatital deuterons sight be required* 

To obtain an appreciable rate of production of He-4 in the cold fusion 
condition (a wave incoming channel), a coherent auger-typ® ejection of 
electrons ia required. Further, to get the extremely large branching ratio 
of He-4 production to p and n production, the energy of th® electrons has 
to be dissipated by coherently exciting & large number of lattice vibration 
codes, even though PdDx deuteride itself has large electron phonon interaction 
in the large x value.